Vulnerable Populations: Research

A Mixed Methods Evaluation of Early Childhood Abuse Prevention Within Evidence-Based Home Visiting Programs

Jun. 13, 2018

Meredith Matone, Katherine Kellom, Heather Griffis, William Quarshie, Jennifer Faerber, Peter Gierlach, Jennifer Whittaker, David M. Rubin...

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL]

Objectives: In this large scale, mixed methods evaluation, we determined the impact and context of early childhood home visiting on rates of child abuse-related injury. 

Methods: Entropy-balanced and propensity score matched retrospective cohort analysis comparing children of Pennsylvania Nurse–Family Partnership (NFP), Parents As Teachers (PAT), and Early Head Start (EHS) enrollees and children of Pennsylvania Medicaid eligible women from 2008 to 2014. Abuse-related injury episodes were identified in medical...

Internet and Social Media Access Among Youth Experiencing Homelessness: Mixed-Methods Study

Jun. 6, 2018

Lauren A. Houdek VonHoltz, Rosemary Frasso, Jesse M. Golinkoff, Alicia J. Lozano, Alexandra Hanlon, Nadia Dowshen

ABSTRACT [from journal]

Background: Youth experiencing homelessness are at a risk for a variety of adverse outcomes. Given the widespread use of the internet and social media, these new technologies may be used to address their needs and for outreach purposes. However, little is known about how this group uses these resources.

Objective: This study investigated how homeless adolescents use these technologies for general and health-related purposes, whether the scope of their use changes with housing status, and...

The ‘Warming Effect’ of DACA on American Children

Jun. 4, 2018

New research shows that young citizen children were more likely to receive important social services when their undocumented mothers became eligible for the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program. Providing evidence of the multi-generational spillover effects of immigration policy, this new analysis comes as the U.S.

Family Food Purchases of High- and Low-Calorie Foods in Full-Service Supermarkets and Other Food Retailers by Black Women in an Urban US Setting

May. 31, 2018

Benjamin W. Chrisinger, Katherine Isselmann DiSantis, Amy E. HillierShiriki K. Kumanyika

Abstract [from journal]

Public health interventions to increase supermarket access assume that shopping in supermarkets is associated with healthier food purchases compared to other store types. To test this assumption, we compared purchasing patterns by store-type for certain higher-calorie, less healthy foods (HCF) and lower-calorie, healthier foods (LCF) in a sample of 35 black women household shoppers in Philadelphia, PA. Data analyzed were from 450 food shopping receipts collected by these shoppers over four-week periods in 2012. We compared the

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Violence in Rural, Suburban, and Urban Schools in Pennsylvania

May. 10, 2018

Kalen Flynn, Catherine C. McDonald, ...

Abstract [from journal]

School violence is a public health issue with direct and collateral consequences that has academic and social impacts for youth. School violence is often considered a uniquely urban problem, yet more research is needed to understand how violence in rural and suburban schools may be similar or different from urban counterparts. Using school violence data from a state with urban, suburban, and rural counties, we explored the landscape of school violence in Pennsylvania (PA) through mapping, descriptive statistics, and factor analysis. Results show school...

Being Uninsured in America

Apr. 26, 2018

For the nearly 30 million people in the United States who have no health insurance, gaining access to care and paying for that care can be a challenge.  A new “secret shopper” study explores whether the uninsured can get a new primary care appointment, and at what price.

‘Sharing things with people that I don’t even know’: Help-seeking for Psychological Symptoms in Injured Black Men in Philadelphia

Apr. 12, 2018

Sara Jacoby, John A. Rich, Jessica L. Webster, Therese S. Richmond

Abstract [from journal]

Objectives: Psychological distress is common in survivors of traumatic injury, yet across United States’ trauma systems, it is rare that standard injury care integrates psychological evaluation and professional...

Impact of Insurance Coverage on HIV Transmission Potential Among Antiretroviral Therapy-Treated Youth Living with HIV

Apr. 4, 2018

Sarah Wood, Sarah Ratcliffe, Charitha Gowda, Susan Lee, Nadia DowshenRobert...

Abstract [from journal]

Objective: To identify the prevalence of high HIV transmission potential in a cohort of youth living with HIV (YLWH), and determine the impact of insurance coverage on potential for HIV transmission.

Design: Retrospective cohort study of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated YLWH at a US adolescent HIV clinic, 2002–2015.

Methods: The primary exposure was presence or absence of insurance, defined as private, public or pharmacy-only coverage. The primary outcome was high HIV transmission...

County Jail or Psychiatric Hospital? Ethical Challenges in Correctional Mental Health Care

Mar. 27, 2018

Andrea G. Segal, Rosemary Frasso, Dominic A. Sisti

Abstract [from journal]

Approximately 20% of the roughly 2.5 million individuals incarcerated in the United States have a serious mental illness (SMI). As a result of their illnesses, these individuals are often more likely to commit a crime, end up incarcerated, and languish in correctional settings without appropriate treatment. The objective of the present study was to investigate how correctional facility personnel reconcile the ethical challenges that arise when housing and treating individuals with SMI. Four focus groups and one group interview were conducted with employees...

Traumatic Injury Lingers Long After Wounds Heal

Mar. 12, 2018

Black men in the United States are disproportionately affected by traumatic injuries. Understanding the emotional consequences of injuries among this population is important for addressing the mental health challenges that may arise after injury.

Implementation Strategies to Improve Cervical Cancer Prevention in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

Mar. 8, 2018

Lauren G. Johnson, Allison Armstrong, Caroline M. Joyce, Anne M. Teitelman, and Alison M. Buttenheim

ABSTRACT [From Journal]

BackgroundDeveloped countries, such as the USA, have achieved significant decreases in cervical cancer burden since the introduction of Pap smear-based programs in the 1960s. Due to implementation barriers and limited resources, many countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have been unable to attain such reductions. The purpose of this review is to evaluate implementation strategies used to improve the uptake and sustainability of cervical cancer prevention programs in SSA....

Citywide Cluster Randomized Trial to Restore Blighted Vacant Land and Its Effects on Violence, Crime, and Fear

Mar. 5, 2018

Charles C. Branas, Eugenia South, Michelle C. Kondo, Bernadette C. Hohl, Philippe Bourgois, Douglas J. Wiebe and ...

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL]

Vacant and blighted urban land is a widespread and potentially risky environmental condition encountered by millions of people on a daily basis. About 15% of the land in US cities is deemed vacant or abandoned, an area roughly the size of Switzerland. In a citywide cluster randomized controlled trial, we investigated the effects of standardized, reproducible interventions that restore vacant land on the commission of violence, crime, and the perceptions of fear and safety. Quantitative and ethnographic analyses were included in a mixed-...

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