Vulnerable Populations: Research

Regional Differences in the Impact of the “Stand Your Ground” Law in Florida

Sep. 5, 2018

Benjamin Ukert, Douglas J. Wiebe, David K. Humphreys

Abstract [from journal]

In October 2005, Florida relaxed restrictions on the use of lethal force in self-defense with the Florida stand your ground law (SYG). We examined whether and how the impact of the Florida SYG varied based on the demographic and economic conditions of each of its counties. Using data from the Florida Universal Crime Reports on homicides and firearm homicides from 1999 to 2014, we found that the impact differed significantly by county urbanization, unemployment, and pre-law homicide rates. The largest increases in homicide and firearm homicide occurred

...

Effect of a Behavioral Intervention on Perpetrating and Experiencing Forced Sex Among South African Adolescents: A Secondary Analysis of a Cluster Randomized Trial

Aug. 17, 2018

John Barton Jemmott III, Loretta Sweet Jemmott, Ann O’Leary, Zolani Philemon Ngwane, Anne Marie Teitelman, Monde Blessing Makiwane, Scarlett L. Bellamy

Abstract [from journal]

Importance: Scant research has investigated interventions to reduce forced sexual intercourse among adolescents. The need for such interventions is especially great in South Africa, which has some of the highest rates of sexual assault in the world.

Objectives: To determine whether an HIV/sexually transmitted disease risk-reduction intervention that reduced sexual risk behavior and sexually transmitted disease prevalence also reduced the perpetration and experience of forced sex among...

Influence of Community-Level Cultural Beliefs about Autism on Families' and Professionals' Care for Children

Jul. 25, 2018

Christina D. Kang-YiRoy Richard Grinker, Rinad Beidas, Aneeza Agha, ...

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL]

This qualitative study aimed to understand how community-level cultural beliefs affect families’ and professionals’ care for children with autism and developmental delays in immigrant communities, as a first step towards promoting early identification and access to early intervention services. The study was part of the larger New York City (NYC) Korean Community Autism Project, which was designed to identify strategies to increase awareness of autism and reduce delays in treatment seeking within the NYC Korean-American community. Our study elicited early...

Effect of Greening Vacant Land on Mental Health of Community-Dwelling Adults: A Cluster Randomized Trial

Jul. 25, 2018

Eugenia C. South, Bernadette C. Hohl, Michelle C. Kondo, John M. MacDonaldCharles C. Branas

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL]

Importance: Neighborhood physical conditions have been associated with mental illness and may partially explain persistent socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of poor mental health.

Objective: To evaluate whether interventions to green vacant urban land can improve self-reported mental health.

Design, Setting, and Participants:This citywide cluster randomized trial examined 442 community-dwelling sampled adults living in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, within 110 vacant lot clusters...

Police Killings and Their Spillover Effects on the Mental Health of Black Americans: A Population-Based, Quasi-Experimental Study

Jul. 2, 2018

Jacob Bor, Atheendar S. Venkataramani, David R Williams, Alexander C. Tsai

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Police kill more than 300 black Americans—at least a quarter of them unarmed—each year in the USA. These events might have spillover effects on the mental health of people not directly affected.

Methods: In this population-based, quasi-experimental study, we combined novel data on police killings with individual-level data from the nationally representative 2013–15 US Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (

...

Measuring Emergency Care Survival: The Implications of Risk-Adjusting for Race and Poverty

Jun. 20, 2018

Kimon L.H. Ioannides, Avi Baehr, David N. Karp, Douglas J. Wiebe, Brendan G. Carr,...

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL]

Objectives: We determined the impact of including race, ethnicity, and poverty in risk adjustment models for emergency care sensitive conditions mortality that could be used for hospital pay‐for‐performance initiatives. We hypothesized that adjusting for race, ethnicity, and poverty would bolster rankings for hospitals that cared for a disproportionate share of non‐white, Hispanic, or poor patients.

Methods: We performed a cross‐sectional analysis

...

A Mixed Methods Evaluation of Early Childhood Abuse Prevention Within Evidence-Based Home Visiting Programs

Jun. 13, 2018

Meredith Matone, Katherine Kellom, Heather Griffis, William Quarshie, Jennifer Faerber, Peter Gierlach, Jennifer Whittaker, David M. Rubin...

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL]

Objectives: In this large scale, mixed methods evaluation, we determined the impact and context of early childhood home visiting on rates of child abuse-related injury. 

Methods: Entropy-balanced and propensity score matched retrospective cohort analysis comparing children of Pennsylvania Nurse–Family Partnership (NFP), Parents As Teachers (PAT), and Early Head Start (EHS) enrollees and children of Pennsylvania Medicaid eligible women from 2008 to 2014. Abuse-related injury episodes were identified in medical...

Internet and Social Media Access Among Youth Experiencing Homelessness: Mixed-Methods Study

Jun. 6, 2018

Lauren A. Houdek VonHoltz, Rosemary Frasso, Jesse M. Golinkoff, Alicia J. Lozano, Alexandra Hanlon, Nadia Dowshen

ABSTRACT [from journal]

Background: Youth experiencing homelessness are at a risk for a variety of adverse outcomes. Given the widespread use of the internet and social media, these new technologies may be used to address their needs and for outreach purposes. However, little is known about how this group uses these resources.

Objective: This study investigated how homeless adolescents use these technologies for general and health-related purposes, whether the scope of their use changes with housing status, and...

The ‘Warming Effect’ of DACA on American Children

Jun. 4, 2018

New research shows that young citizen children were more likely to receive important social services when their undocumented mothers became eligible for the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program. Providing evidence of the multi-generational spillover effects of immigration policy, this new analysis comes as the U.S.

Family Food Purchases of High- and Low-Calorie Foods in Full-Service Supermarkets and Other Food Retailers by Black Women in an Urban US Setting

May. 31, 2018

Benjamin W. Chrisinger, Katherine Isselmann DiSantis, Amy E. HillierShiriki K. Kumanyika

Abstract [from journal]

Public health interventions to increase supermarket access assume that shopping in supermarkets is associated with healthier food purchases compared to other store types. To test this assumption, we compared purchasing patterns by store-type for certain higher-calorie, less healthy foods (HCF) and lower-calorie, healthier foods (LCF) in a sample of 35 black women household shoppers in Philadelphia, PA. Data analyzed were from 450 food shopping receipts collected by these shoppers over four-week periods in 2012. We compared the

...

Violence in Rural, Suburban, and Urban Schools in Pennsylvania

May. 10, 2018

Kalen Flynn, Catherine C. McDonald, ...

Abstract [from journal]

School violence is a public health issue with direct and collateral consequences that has academic and social impacts for youth. School violence is often considered a uniquely urban problem, yet more research is needed to understand how violence in rural and suburban schools may be similar or different from urban counterparts. Using school violence data from a state with urban, suburban, and rural counties, we explored the landscape of school violence in Pennsylvania (PA) through mapping, descriptive statistics, and factor analysis. Results show school...

Pages