Julie Fairman, PhD, RN, FAAN, is the Nightingale Professor in honor of Nursing Veterans at the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing and Chair of the Biobehavorial Health Sciences Department. Her research focuses on 20th century healthcare issues, in particular, the history of APRNs and health policy as it relates to competition, scope of practice, and service models. Her most recent work has moved into the intersection of the Civil Rights movement and health. She has published 4 books (2 as co-editor) and her work has been published in the NEJM, the Lancet, and Health Matrix. Dr. Fairman is the co-director of the RWJF Future of Nursing Scholars program and the Director Emerita of the Barbara Bates Center for the Study of the History of Nursing. She is an AAN Fellow and Philadelphia College of Physicians and Visiting Nurses Association of Philadelphia board member. Dr. Fairman served as the 2009 IOM/AAN/ANF Scholar in Residence and worked on the Future of Nursing report.