Publications

The Habit Formation trial of behavioral economic interventions to improve statin use and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease: Rationale, design and methodologies

Aug. 16, 2019

Peter P ReeseKevin G VolppLouise B Russell, George Loewenstein, Jiali Yan, David Pagnotti, Ryan McGilloway, Troyen Brennen, Darra Finnerty, Karen Hoffer, Sakshum Chadha, Iwan Barankay

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Low adherence to statin (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) medication is common. Here, we report on the design and implementation of the Habit Formation trial. This clinical trial assessed whether the interventions, based on principles from behavioral economics, might improve statin adherence and lipid control in at-risk populations. We describe the rationale and methods for the trial, recruitment, conduct and follow-up. We also report on several barriers we encountered

...

After the Gun: Examining Police Visits and Intimate Partner Violence Following Incidents Involving a Firearm

Dylan S. Small, PhD
Aug. 1, 2019

Dylan S. Small, Susan B. Sorenson, Richard A. Berk

Abstract [from journal]

Laws have been enacted to keep firearms out of the hands of abusers. In this study, we examined one such effort-removal of a firearm at the scene of intimate partner violence (IPV)-to assess the subsequent occurrence and number of IPV incidents responded to by police and subsequent risk of injury to the victim. Using the 28,977 IPV calls in one large U.S. city to which officers responded during the 2013 calendar year, we identified 220 first-time incidents in which offenders used (i.e., brandished, pistol whipped, shot) a pistol, revolver, rifle, or

...

Socio-spatial heterogeneity in participation in mass dog rabies vaccination campaigns, Arequipa, Peru.

Aug. 1, 2019

Ricardo Castillo-Neyra, Amparo M. Toledo, Claudia Arevalo-Nieto, Hannelore MacDonald, Micaela De la Puente-León, Cesar Naquira-Velarde, Valerie A. Paz-Soldan, Alison M. Buttenheim, Michael Z. Levy

Abstract [from journal] 

To control and prevent rabies in Latin America, mass dog vaccination campaigns (MDVC) are implemented mainly through fixed-location vaccination points: owners have to bring their dogs to the vaccination points where they receive the vaccination free of charge. Dog rabies is still endemic in some Latin-American countries and high overall dog vaccination coverage and even distribution of vaccinated dogs are desired attributes of MDVC to halt rabies virus transmission. In Arequipa, Peru, we conducted a door-to-door post-campaign survey on >6,000 houses to...

An Assessment of Patient, Caregiver, and Clinician Perspectives on the Post-Discharge Phase of Care

Jul. 25, 2019

Phillip Dowzicky, Arnav Shah, Frances Barg, Whitney Eriksen, Matthew McHugh, Rachel Kelz

Abstract [from journal]

Objective: We sought to elicit patients', caregivers', and health care providers' perceptions of home recovery to inform care personalization in the learning health system.

Summary Background Data: Postsurgical care has shifted from the hospital into the home. Daily care responsibilities fall to patients and their caregivers, yet stakeholder concerns in these heterogeneous environments, especially as they relate to racial inequities, are poorly understood.

Methods: Surgical oncology

...

Registered Nurse Burnout, Job Dissatisfaction, and Missed Care in Nursing Homes

Jul. 23, 2019

Elizabeth M. White, Linda H. Aiken, Matthew D. McHugh

Abstract [from journal]

Objectives: To examine the relationship between registered nurse (RN) burnout, job dissatisfaction, and missed care in nursing homes.

Design: Cross-sectional secondary analysis of linked data from the 2015 RN4CAST-US nurse survey and LTCfocus.

Setting: A total of 540 Medicare- and Medicaid-certified nursing homes in California, Florida, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.

Participants: A total of 687 direct care RNs.

Measurements: Emotional Exhaustion...

Are the Fitzpatrick Skin Phototypes Valid for Cancer Risk Assessment in a Racially and Ethnically Diverse Sample of Women?

Marilyn Sommers, PhD, RN, FAAN
Jul. 18, 2019

Marilyn S. Sommers, Jamison D. Fargo, Yadira Regueira, Kathleen M. Brown, Barbara L. Beacham, Angela R. Perfetti, Janine S. Everett, David J. Margolis

Abstract [from journal]

The Fitzpatrick Skin Phototypes (FSP) were developed to classify skin color and response to ultraviolet radiation. FSP are used clinically to assess risk for sunburn and skin cancer. Our aim was to determine the criterion-related validity of self-reported FSP when compared with skin color and sunburn history, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, and seasonality/geography. We performed a secondary analysis of data (N=466) from an observational study. The racial/ethnic composition of the sample was 45% White/White Hispanic (WWH), 40% Black/Black

...

Infection and Fever in Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Findings from the Study to Explore Early Development

Jul. 17, 2019

Lisa A. Croen, Yinge Qian, Paul Ashwood, Ousseny Zerbo, Diana Schendel, Jennifer Pinto-Martin, M. Daniele Fallin, Susan Levy, Laura A. Schieve, Marshalyn Yeargin-Allsopp, Katherine R. Sabourin, Jennifer L. Ames

Abstract [from journal]

Maternal infection and fever during pregnancy have been implicated in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, studies have not been able to separate the effects of fever itself from the impact of a specific infectious organism on the developing brain. We utilized data from the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED), a case-control study among 2- to 5-year-old children born between 2003 and 2006 in the United States, to explore a possible association between maternal infection and fever during pregnancy and risk of ASD and other

...

Assessment of Medicaid Beneficiaries Included in Community Engagement Requirements in Kentucky

Jul. 17, 2019

Atheendar S. Venkataramani, Elizabeth F. Blair, Erica Dixon, Kristin A. Linn, Will Ferrell, Margrethe Montgomery, Michelle K. Strollo, Kevin G. Volpp, Kristen Underhill

Abstract

Importance: States are pursuing Section 1115 Medicaid demonstration waiver authority to apply community engagement (CE) requirements (eg, participation in work, volunteer activities, or training) to beneficiaries deemed able-bodied as a condition of coverage. Understanding the size and characteristics of the populations included in these requirements can help inform policy initiatives and anticipate effects.

Objective: To estimate the number and characteristics of Kentucky Medicaid beneficiaries who would have to meet CE

...

Implementing Regulatory Broad Consent Under the Revised Common Rule: Clarifying Key Points and the Need for Evidence

Jul. 12, 2019

Holly Fernandez Lynch, Leslie E. Wolf, Mark Barnes

Abstract [from journal]

The revised Common Rule includes a new option for the conduct of secondary research with identifiable data and biospecimens: regulatory broad consent. Motivated by concerns regarding autonomy and trust in the research enterprise, regulators had initially proposed broad consent in a manner that would have rendered it the exclusive approach to secondary research with all biospecimens, regardless of identifiability. Based on public comments from both researchers and patients concerned that this approach would hinder important medical advances, however,

...

Cultural factors influencing self-care by persons with cardiovascular disease: An integrative review.

Jul. 9, 2019

Onome Osokpo, Barbara Riegel

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Self-care is critical for maintaining health, minimizing disease complications, and improving quality of life. Understanding valid, culturally-specific practices and their influence on self-care behaviors can inform development of interventions to improve outcomes for individuals living with cardiovascular disease (CVD). To date, the influence of culture on self-care behaviors has not been adequately examined in different CVD populations.

Aim: The aim of this review was to synthesize past empirical

...

Socioeconomic Status in Pediatric Health Research: A Scoping Review

Jul. 9, 2019

Alicia G. Kachmar, Cynthia A. Connolly, Sharon Wolf, Martha A. Q. Curley

Abstract

Objective: To conduct a scoping review of the literature to describe current conceptualization and measurement of socioeconomic status in pediatric health research.

Study Design: Four databases were used to identify relevant studies, followed by selection and data extraction. Inclusion criteria for studies were the following: enrolled subjects <18 years old, included a health-related outcome, published from 1999 to 2018, and explicitly measured socioeconomic status (SES).

Results: Our literature

...

Policy Flight Simulators: Accelerating Decisions to Adopt Evidence-Based Health Interventions

Jul. 8, 2019

William Rouse, Mary Naylor, Zhongyuan Yu, Michael Pennock, Karen Hirschman, Mark Pauly, Kara Pepe

Abstract [from journal]

In this study, the authors used simulation to explore factors that might influence hospitals' decisions to adopt evidence-based interventions. Specifically, they developed a simulation model to examine the extent to which hospitals would benefit economically from the transitional care model (TCM). The TCM is designed to transition high-risk older adults from hospitals back to communities using interventions focused on preventing readmissions.The authors used qualitative methods to identify and validate simulation facets. Four simulation experiments

...

Comparative Effectiveness of Treatments for High-risk Prostate Cancer Patients

Jul. 5, 2019

Ravishankar Jayadevappa, David I. Lee, Sumedha Chhatre, Thomas J. Guzzo, Stanley B. Malkowicz

Abstract [from journal]

Background: To determine the comparative effectiveness of primary radical prostatectomy (RP) compared to external bean radiation therapy (EBRT) with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), or EBRT plus brachytherapy (BT) with or without ADT among Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries with high-risk prostate cancer, for 10-year, mortality (overall and prostate cancer-specific), complications, health service use, and cost.

Methods: This population-based cohort study used Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results

...

Narrow Framing and Long‐Term Care Insurance

Jul. 5, 2019

Daniel Gottlieb, Olivia S. Mitchell

Abstract [from journal]

We propose a model of narrow framing in insurance and test it using data from a new module we designed and fielded in the Health and Retirement Study. We show that respondents subject to narrow framing are substantially less likely to buy long‐term care insurance than average. This effect is much larger than the effects of risk aversion or adverse selection, and it offers a new explanation for why people underinsure their later‐life care needs.

A Methodology For Studying Organizational Performance: A Multistate Survey of Front-line Providers

Jul. 3, 2019

Karen Lasater, Olga Jarrín, Linda Aiken, Matthew McHugh, Douglas Sloane, Herbert Smith 

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Rigorous measurement of organizational performance requires large, unbiased samples to allow inferences to the population. Studies of organizations, including hospitals, often rely on voluntary surveys subject to nonresponse bias. For example, hospital administrators with concerns about performance are more likely to opt-out of surveys about organizational quality and safety, which is problematic for generating inferences.

Objective: The objective of this study was to describe a novel approach to...

Pages