Publications

Insulin Pump Use in Children With Type 1 Diabetes: Over a Decade of Disparities

Nov. 25, 2020

Terri H. Lipman, Steven M. Willi, C.W. Lai, Jennifer A. Smith, Oona Patil, Colin P. Hawkes

Abstract [from journal]

Purpose: Racial disparities have been shown in outcomes and treatment of children with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The purpose of this study was to examine temporal trends in insulin pump use among non-Hispanic white (NHW), non-Hispanic black (NHB) and Hispanic children attending a large urban diabetes center.

This study was a retrospective chart review of insulin pump usage by race (NHW/ NHB) in 2005, and race/ethnicity (NHW/NHB/Hispanic) in 2011–2019. Demographic data (age, sex, diabetes duration, SES) and most recent

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Oral Anticoagulant Use in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and Mitral Valve Repair

Nov. 24, 2020

Ashwin S. Nathan, Lin Yang, Zhi Geng, Elias J. DayoubSameed Ahmed M. Khatana, Paul N. Fiorilli, Howard C. Herrmann, Wilson Y. Szeto, Pavan Atluri, Michael A. Acker, Nimesh D. Desai, David S. Frankel, Francis E. Marchlinski, ...

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who have undergone mitral valve repair are at risk for thromboembolic strokes. Prior to 2019, only vitamin K antagonists were recommended for patients with AF who had undergone mitral valve repair despite the introduction of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) in 2010.

Objective: To characterize the use of anticoagulants in patients with AF who underwent surgical mitral valve repair (sMVR) or transcatheter mitral valve repair (tMVR).

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Surviving COVID-19 After Hospital Discharge: Symptom, Functional, And Adverse Outcomes Of Home Health Recipients

Nov. 24, 2020

Kathryn H. Bowles, Margaret McDonald, Yolanda Barrón, Erin Kennedy, Melissa O'Connor, Mark Mikkelsen

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Little is known about recovery from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after hospital discharge.

Objective: To describe the home health recovery of patients with COVID-19 and risk factors associated with rehospitalization or death.

Design: Retrospective observational cohort.

Setting: New York City.

Participants: 1409 patients with COVID-19 admitted to home health care (HHC) between 1 April and 15 June 2020

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Assessment Of 135794 Pediatric Patients Tested For Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Across The United States

Christopher B. Forrest, MD, PhD
Nov. 23, 2020

L. Charles Bailey, Hanieh Razzaghi, Evanette K. Burrows, H. Timothy Bunnell, Peter E. F. Camacho, Dimitri A. Christakis, Daniel Eckrich, Melody Kitzmiller, Simon M. Lin, Brianna C. Magnusen, Jason Newland, Nathan M. Pajor, Daksha Ranade, Suchitra Rao, Olamiji Sofela, Janet Zahner, Cortney Bruno...

Abstract [from journal]

Importance: There is limited information on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing and infection among pediatric patients across the United States.

Objective: To describe testing for SARS-CoV-2 and the epidemiology of infected patients.

Design, setting, and participants: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using electronic health record data from 135 794 patients younger than 25 years who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 from January 1

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Frailty is a Risk Factor for Post-Operative Mortality in Patients With Cirrhosis Undergoing Diverse Major Surgeries

Nov. 23, 2020

Nadim Mahmud, David E. Kaplan, Tamar H. Taddei, David S. Goldberg

Abstract [from journal]

Background: With a rising burden of cirrhosis surgeries, understanding risk factors for post-operative mortality are more salient than ever. The role of baseline frailty has not been assessed in this context. We aimed to evaluate the association between patient frailty and post-operative risk among diverse patients with cirrhosis, and to determine if frailty improves prognostication of cirrhosis surgical risk scores.

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of U.S. Veterans with

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Association of COVID-19 Misinformation With Face Mask Wearing and Social Distancing in a Nationally Representative U.S. Sample

Robert C. Hornik, PhD
Nov. 22, 2020

Robert Hornik, Ava Kikut, Emma Jesch, Chioma Woko, Leeann Siegel, Kwanho Kim

Abstract [from journal]

Wide-spread misinformation about the COVID-19 pandemic has presented challenges for communicating public health recommendations. Should campaigns to promote protective behaviors focus on debunking misinformation or targeting behavior-specific beliefs? To address this question, we examine whether belief in COVID-19 misinformation is directly associated with two behaviors (face mask wearing and social distancing), and whether behavior-specific beliefs can account for this association and better predict behavior, consistent with

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Understanding Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Autism-Related Service Use Among Medicaid-Enrolled Children

Nov. 21, 2020

Lucy A. Bilaver, Sarah A. Sobotka, David S. Mandell

Abstract [from journal]

Racial and ethnic disparities in the use of nine common autism-related services among Medicaid-enrolled children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were examined, distinguishing between school and other community-based outpatient settings. Using 2012 Medicaid Analytic Extract data, we identified 117,848 continuously enrolled children with ASD. Several racial and ethnic disparities were found, varying by geography. Black, Asian, and Native American/Pacific Islanders received fewer outpatient services compared with white children, but

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Using Clinical Trial Data to Estimate the Costs of Behavioral Interventions for Potential Adopters: A Guide for Trialists

Nov. 20, 2020

Louise B. Russell, Laurie A. Norton, David Pagnotti, Christianne Sevinc, Sophia Anderson, Darra Finnerty Bigelow, Lauren G. Iannotte, Michael Josephs, Ryan McGilloway, Iwan Barankay, Mary E. Putt, Peter P. ReeseDavid A. Asch, Lee R. Goldberg...

Abstract [from journal]

Behavioral interventions involving electronic devices, financial incentives, gamification, and specially trained staff to encourage healthy behaviors are becoming increasingly prevalent and important in health innovation and improvement efforts. Although considerations of cost are key to their wider adoption, cost information is lacking because the resources required cannot be costed using standard administrative billing data. Pragmatic clinical trials that test behavioral interventions are potentially the best and often only source

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Using Informational Murals and Handwashing Stations to Increase Access to Sanitation Among People Experiencing Homelessness During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Nov. 19, 2020

Yoonhee P. Ha, Nicole McDonald, Shari Hersh, Stephanie R. Fenniri, Amy HillierCarolyn C. Cannuscio

Abstract [from journal]

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has upended every aspect of life in the United States and forced Americans to rethink their daily activities, including how they work, attend school, secure food, obtain health care, and maintain social connections. For vulnerable populations that were already facing significant barriers to health, such as people experiencing homelessness, the pandemic has only generated new hardships and exacerbated existing inequities. 

Assessing the Role of Gay Community Attachment, Stigma, and PrEP Stereotypes on Young Men Who Have Sex With Men's PrEP Uptake

Nov. 19, 2020

Steven Meanley, Daniel Connochie, Seul Ki Choi, Stephen Bonett, Dalmacio D. FloresJosé A. Bauermeister

Abstract [from journal]

Negative stereotypes about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) hinder PrEP uptake among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Prior research suggests community homophobia may be linked to negative PrEP attitudes. Conversely, individuals with high gay community attachments (GCA) may have more access to credible PrEP information/resources. Among 285 YMSM recruited online, we estimated structural equation models to test competing conceptual models that inform pathways from perceived stigmas, GCA, and negative PrEP stereotype endorsements

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Alzheimer’s Dementia After Exposure to Anesthesia and Surgery in the Elderly: A Matched Natural Experiment Using Appendicitis

Jeffrey H. Silber, MD, PhD
Nov. 17, 2020

Jeffrey H. SilberPaul R. Rosenbaum, Joseph G. Reiter, Alexander S. Hill, Siddharth Jain, David A. Wolk, Dylan S. Small, Sean Hashemi, Bijan A. Niknam, Mark D. NeumanLee A. Fleisher, Roderic...

Abstract [from journal]

Objective: To determine if surgery and anesthesia in the elderly may promote Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias (ADRD).

Background: There is a substantial conflicting literature concerning the hypothesis that surgery and anesthesia promotes ADRD. Much of the literature is confounded by indications for surgery or has small sample size. This study examines elderly patients with appendicitis, a common condition that strikes mostly at random after controlling for some known associations.

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Using Nationally Representative Percentiles to Interpret PROMIS Pediatric Measures

Christopher B. Forrest, MD, PhD
Nov. 17, 2020

Adam C. Carle, Katherine B. Bevans, Carole A. Tucker, Christopher B. Forrest 

Abstract [from journal]

Purpose: This study's aim was to use a representative sample of the US pediatric population to estimate percentiles for several PROMIS pediatric measures: Anger, Anxiety, Depressive Symptoms, Family Relationships, Fatigue, Global Health, Life Satisfaction, Meaning and Purpose, Pain Behavior, Pain Interference, Physical Activity, Physical Function Mobility, Physical Function Upper Extremity, Physical Stress Experiences, Positive Affect, Psychological Stress Experiences, Sleep Disturbance, Sleep Impairment, and Peer

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Better Nurse Staffing is Associated With Survival for Black Patients and Diminishes Racial Disparities in Survival After In-Hospital Cardiac Arrests

Nov. 16, 2020

Margo Brooks CarthonHeather BromMatthew McHugh, Douglas M. Sloane, Robert Berg, Raina Merchant, Saket Girotra, Linda H. Aiken

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Racial disparities in survival among patients who had an in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) have been linked to hospital-level factors.

Objectives: To determine whether nurse staffing is associated with survival disparities after IHCA.

Research design: Cross-sectional data from (1) the American Heart Association's Get With the Guidelines-Resuscitation database; (2) the University of Pennsylvania Multi-State Nursing Care and Patient Safety

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Acute Kidney Injury In Deceased Organ Donors And Kidney Transplant Outcomes: A National Cohort Study Using A Novel Data Source

Nov. 13, 2020

Elizabeth M. SonnenbergJesse Y. Hsu, Jordana B. Cohen, Vishnu S. Potluri, Zhi Geng, Matthew H. Levine, Peter L. Abt, Peter P. Reese

Abstract [from journal]

Objective: To determine graft function and survival for kidney transplants from deceased donors with acute kidney injury (AKI) that persists at the time of organ procurement.

Background: Kidneys from donors with AKI are often discarded and may provide an opportunity to selectively expand the donor pool.

Methods: Using OPTN and DonorNet data, we studied adult kidney-only recipients between 5/1/2007-12/31/2016. DonorNet was used to characterize

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Identifying Cohabiting Couples In Administrative Data: Evidence From Medicare Address Data

Nov. 12, 2020

Sasmira Matta, Joanne W. Hsu, Theodore J. Iwashyna, Micah Y. Baum, Kenneth M. Langa & Lauren Hersch Nicholas 

Abstract [from journal]

Objectives: Assess whether frequently‐used claims‐based end‐of‐life (EOL) measures are associated with higher ratings of care quality.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting/Pariticpants: Deceased fee‐for‐service Medicare beneficiaries with cancer who underwent chemotherapy during July 2016 to January 2017 and died within 12 

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