Publications

Professional Networks and Support for Nursing Home Directors of Nursing

Eileen Lake, PhD, RN
Jun. 10, 2019

Aditi D. Rao, Lois K. Evans, Christine A. Mueller, Eileen T. Lake
 

Abstract [from journal]

In this study, we examined the influence of professional network characteristics, available professional support, and perceived support quality on intent to stay among for-profit nursing home (NH) directors of nursing (DON). We hypothesized that the receipt of high quality professional support would be associated with DON intent to stay. DONs have a critical mandate to provide leadership that influences their facilities' work climate and care quality. Yet, they often struggle to manage overwhelming responsibilities and are left feeling alienated,

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Routine Cholesterol Tests and Subsequent Change in BMI Among Overweight and Obese Children

Alexander G. Fiks, MD, MSCE
Jun. 10, 2019

Emily F. Gregory, Jeffrey M. Miller, Richard C. Wasserman, Roopa Seshadri, David M. Rubin, Alexander G. Fiks

Abstract [from journal]

Introduction: In 2011 the NHLBI and AAP concluded that both familial and obesity associated dyslipidemias increase cardiovascular risk and recommended universal cholesterol testing at ages 9 - 11. It remains unknown whether testing influences body mass index (BMI) trajectory, a key modifiable cardiovascular outcome.

Methods: This quasi-experimental matched cohort includes children aged 9 - 11 years completing well visits in a diverse primary care network from 2012 - 2014. Participants had baseline BMI >=

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Regression Discontinuity Analysis of Gavi's Impact on Vaccination Rates

Jun. 10, 2019

Sarah Dykstra, Amanda Glassman, Charles Kenny, Justin Sandefur

Abstract [from journal]

Since 2001, an aid consortium known as Gavi has accounted for over half of vaccines purchased in the 75 eligible countries with an initial GNI below $1,000 per capita. Regression discontinuity estimates suggest most aid for cheap, existing vaccines like hepatitis B and DPT was inframarginal: for instance, hepatitis B doses sufficient to vaccinate roughly 75% of infants raised vaccination rates by single-digit margins. These results are driven by middle-income countries near the eligibility threshold, and do not preclude larger gains

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National Variation in Opioid Prescription Fills and Long Term Use in Opioid Naive Patients After Urological Surgery

Jun. 5, 2019

Ian Berger, Marshall Strother, Ruchika Talwar, Justin Ziemba, Christopher Wirtalla, Leilei Xia, Thomas Guzzo, M. Kit Delgado, Rachel Kelz

Abstract [from journal]

Purpose: Prescription opioid use is increasing, leading to increased addiction and mortality. Post-operative care is often patients' first exposure to opioids, however little data exists on national prescription patterns in urology. We aimed to examine post-discharge opioid fills after urological procedures and their association with long term use.

Materials and Methods: We identified patients in a private national insurance database undergoing 15 urological procedures between October 1, 2010 and September 30,

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Chronic Disease Self-Management within the Monthly Benefit Cycle of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program

Amy Hillier, PhD, MSW
Jun. 5, 2019

Eliza Whiteman Kinsey, Roxanne Dupuis, Megan OberleCarolyn C CannuscioAmy Hillier

Abstract [from journal]

Objective: The present study explored chronic disease management over the monthly benefit cycle among primary food shoppers from households receiving Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits in Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Design: In-depth interviews, participant observation and surveys were conducted with the primary food shopper of SNAP households.

Setting: Interviews and surveys were conducted in a clinical setting at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, at

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Variation Among Patients With Crohn's Disease in Benefit vs Risk Preferences and Remission Time Equivalents.

James Lewis, MD, MSCE
May. 30, 2019

Meenakshi Bewtra, Shelby D. Reed, F. Reed Johnson, Frank I. Scott, Erin Gilroy, Robert S. Sandler, Wenli Chen, James D. Lewis

Abstract [from journal]

Background & Aims: Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) must make decisions about their treatment. We aimed to quantify patients' preferences for different treatment outcomes and adverse events. We also evaluated the effects of latent-class heterogeneity on these preferences.

Methods: An online stated-preference survey was completed by 812 individuals with CD in the Crohn's and Colitis Foundation Partners cohort (IBD Partners). Patients were given information on symptoms and severity of active disease; duration of...

Taxes and Front-of-Package Labels Improve the Healthiness of Beverage and Snack Purchases: A Randomized Experimental Marketplace

May. 30, 2019

Rachel B. Acton, Amanda C. Jones, Sharon I. Kirkpatrick, Christina A. Roberto, David Hammond

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Sugar taxes and front-of-package (FOP) nutrition labelling systems are strategies to address diet-related non-communicable diseases. However, there is relatively little experimental data on how these strategies influence consumer behavior and how they may interact. This study examined the relative impact of different sugar taxes and FOP labelling systems on beverage and snack food purchases.

Methods: A total of 3584 Canadians 13 years and older participated in an experimental marketplace study using

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Association of a Beverage Tax on Sugar-Sweetened and Artificially Sweetened Beverages With Changes in Beverage Prices and Sales at Chain Retailers in a Large Urban Setting

May. 14, 2019

Christina A. Roberto, Hannah G. Lawman, Michael T. LeVasseur, Nandita Mitra, Ana Peterhans, Bradley Herring, Sara N. Bleich

Abstract [from journal]

Importance: Policy makers have implemented beverage taxes to generate revenue and reduce consumption of sweetened drinks. In January 2017, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, became the second US city to implement a beverage excise tax (1.5 cents per ounce).

Objectives: To compare changes in beverage prices and sales following the implementation of the tax in Philadelphia compared with Baltimore, Maryland (a control city without a tax) and to assess potential cross-border shopping to avoid the tax in neighboring zip codes....

Barriers and Facilitators of PrEP Adherence for Young Men and Transgender Women of Color

Apr. 23, 2019

Sarah Wood, Robert Gross, Judy A. Shea, José A. Bauermeister, Joshua Franklin, Danielle Petsis,...

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL]

We aimed to discover barriers and facilitators of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adherence in young men and transgender women of color who have sex with men (YMSM/TW). Short-term and sustained adherence were measured by urine tenofovir concentration and pharmacy refills, respectively. Optimal adherence was defined as having both urine tenofovir concentration consistent with dose ingestion within 48 h and pharmacy refills consistent with ≥ 4 doses per week use. Participants completed semi-structured interviews exploring adherence barriers and...

When Is It Ethical for Physician-Investigators to Seek Consent From Their Own Patients?

Apr. 23, 2019

Stephanie R. Morain, Steven Joffe, Emily A. Largent

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL]

Classic statements of research ethics advise against permitting physician-investigators to obtain consent for research participation from patients with whom they have preexisting treatment relationships. Reluctance about “dual-role” consent reflects the view that distinct normative commitments govern physician–patient and investigator–participant relationships, and that blurring the research–care boundary could lead to ethical transgressions. However, several features of contemporary research demand reconsideration of the ethics of dual-role consent. Here,...

State Gun Laws, Gun Ownership, and Mass Shootings in the US: Cross Sectional Time Series

Apr. 23, 2019

Paul M. Reeping, Magdalena Cerdá, Bindu Kalesan, Douglas J. Wiebe, Sandro Galea, Charles C. Branas

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL]

Objective: To determine whether restrictiveness-permissiveness of state gun laws or gun ownership are associated with mass shootings in the US.

Design: Cross sectional time series.

Setting and Population: US gun owners from 1998-2015.

Exposure: An annual rating between 0 (completely restrictive) and 100 (completely permissive) for the gun laws of

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Geographic Modeling to Quantify the Impact of Primary and Comprehensive Stroke Center Destination Policies

Michael Mullen, MD
Apr. 17, 2019

Michael T. Mullen, William Pajerowski, Steven R. Messé,C. Crawford Mechem, Judy Jia, Michael Abboud, Guy David,...

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL]

Background and Purpose: We evaluated the impact of a primary stroke center (PSC) destination policy in a major metropolitan city and used geographic modeling to evaluate expected changes for a comprehensive stroke center policy...

Isolated, Small, and Large Hospitals have Fewer Nursing Resources than Urban Hospitals: Implications for Rural Health Policy

Eileen Lake, PhD, RN
Apr. 17, 2019

Jessica G. Smith, Colin M. Plover, Moira C. McChesney, Eileen...

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL]

Objective: The purpose was to compare nurse education, patient‐to‐nurse staffing, nursing skill mix, and nurse work environments across hospitals depending on extent of rurality.

Design: Cross‐sectional, comparative, and descriptive.

Sample: The final sample included 566 urban, 49 large, 18 small, and 9 isolated hospitals from California, Florida, and Pennsylvania.

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Evaluating Missouri’s Handgun Purchaser Law: A Bracketing Method for Addressing Concerns About History Interacting with Group

Dylan S. Small, PhD
Apr. 17, 2019

Raiden Hasegawa, Daniel Webster, Dylan Small

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL]

In the comparative interrupted time series design (also called the method of difference-in-differences), the change in outcome in a group exposed to treatment in the periods before and after the exposure is compared with the change in outcome in a control group not exposed to treatment in either period. The standard difference-in-difference estimator for a comparative interrupted time series design will be biased for estimating the causal effect of the treatment if there is an interaction between history in the after period and the groups...

Social Incentives to Encourage Physical Activity and Understand Predictors (STEP UP): Design and Rationale of a Randomized Trial Among Overweight and Obese Adults Across the United States

Apr. 17, 2019

Joseph D. Harrison, Jeremy M. Jones, Dylan S. Small, Charles A. L. Rareshide, Gregory Szwartz, David Steier, James Guszcza, Pameljit Kalra, Brian Torio, Gregory Reh, Victoria Hilbert,...

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL]

Background: Less than half of adults in the United States (US) obtain the recommended level of physical activity. Social incentives, the influences that impact individuals to adjust their behaviors based on social ties or connections, are ubiquitous and could be leveraged within gamification interventions to provide a scalable, low-cost approach to increase engagement. Gamification, or the use of game design in non-game situations, is commonly used in the real world, but in most cases has not appropriately

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