In JAMA Pediatrics, Maryam Naim and colleagues, including Joseph Rossano, investigate effects of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The authors analyze data from the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival, and find that out of 3,900 instances of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests, bystander CPR was provided in 1,814. Children who were treated with either conventional bystander CPR or compression-only CPR had higher survival rates and more favorable neurological outcomes than did those who were not treated with CPR. Conventional bystander CPR that included use of an AED machine had higher survival rates than compression-only CPR. Use of bystander CPR was more common in white children compared with African-American children, girls, witnessed arrests, nonhome/public arrests, arrests with a shockable rhythm, and arrests in which an AED was used. The authors conclude that increasing the use of conventional bystander CPR, especially in minority communities, may improve outcomes for children experiencing out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.