Abstract [from journal]
The 2012 implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) contraceptive coverage mandate removed financial barriers to contraception access for many insured women. Since that time, increases in sexually transmitted disease (STD) rates have been noted, particularly among Black adolescent and young adult women aged 15 to 24 years. It is unclear whether changes in dual-method contraception use (simultaneous use of nonbarrier contraceptive methods and condoms) are associated with the increase in STD rates. A repeated cross-sectional analysis was conducted among adolescent and young adult women to compare pre-ACA data from the 2006-2010 cohort and post-ACA data from the 2013-2015 cohort of the National Survey for Family Growth. A significant decrease in short-acting reversible contraception use (SARC; 78.2% vs. 67.5%; p < .01) and a significant increase in long-acting reversible contraception use (LARC; 8.9% vs. 21.8%; p < .01) were found, but no significant change in dual-method contraception use was found among pre- versus post-ACA SARC users and SARC nonusers (odds ratio [OR]: 1.88, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64-5.46, p = .25), LARC users and LARC nonusers (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.62, 95% CI: 0.42-6.18, p = .48), or White and Black women (AOR: 1.45, 95% CI: 0.66-3.18, p = .35). There was no direct association between changes in contraception use and decreased condom use and therefore no indirect association between changes in contraception use and increased STD rates. Health care providers should continue promoting consistent condom use. Additional research is needed to understand recent increases in STD rates among Black women in the post-ACA era.