In Health Economics, Policy and Law, Michael Richards and Daniel Polsky explore the link between provider mix and access for different patient types. The authors use data from a field study spanning 10 states where trained audit callers were randomly assigned an insurance status and then contacted primary care physician practices seeking new patient appointments. Clinics with more non-physician clinicians are associated with better access for Medicaid patients and lower prices for office visits. However, the authors only find this association in states granting full practice autonomy to these providers. The authors suggest that substituting more non-physician labor in primary care settings may facilitate greater appointment availability for Medicaid patients, but this likely rests on a favorable policy environment.