Abstract [from journal]
Offering payment is an important means of facilitating research participation. Yet, offers of payment raise ethical challenges that may be heightened when prospective participants suffer from or are at risk for opioid use disorder (OUD). We surveyed principal investigators (PIs) conducting research in this population to characterize the relative importance they assign to various ethical and practical factors when designing offers of payment and also analyzed descriptions of payment in both their study advertisements and consent forms. Overall, we found that, despite literature suggesting heightened ethical concerns for this population, practical factors related to payment were more influential for PIs than either ethical factors or factors unique to individuals with or at risk for OUD. Our findings can help inform the development of ethical, effective recruitment and retention strategies for research in this population.