Oral Anticoagulant Use in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and Mitral Valve Repair

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who have undergone mitral valve repair are at risk for thromboembolic strokes. Prior to 2019, only vitamin K antagonists were recommended for patients with AF who had undergone mitral valve repair despite the introduction of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) in 2010.

Objective: To characterize the use of anticoagulants in patients with AF who underwent surgical mitral valve repair (sMVR) or transcatheter mitral valve repair (tMVR).

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of patients with AF undergoing sMVR or tMVR between 04/2014 and 12/2018 using Optum's de-identified Clinformatics® Data Mart Database. We identified anticoagulants prescribed within 90 days of discharge from hospitalization.

Results: Overall, 1997 patients with AF underwent valve repair: 1560 underwent sMVR, and 437 underwent tMVR. The mean CHA2DS2-VASc score among all patients was 4.1 (SD 1.9). The overall use of anticoagulation was unchanged between 2014 (72.2%) and 2018 (70.0%) (P = .49). Among patients who underwent sMVR or tMVR between April 2014 and December 2018, the use of VKA therapy decreased from 62.9% to 32.1% (P < .01 for trend) and the use of DOACs increased from 12.4% to 37.3% (P < .01 for trend).

Conclusions: Among patients with AF who underwent sMVR or tMVR between 2014 and 2018, roughly 30% of patients were not treated with any anticoagulant within 90 days of discharge, despite an elevated stroke risk in the cohort. The rate of DOAC use increased steadily over the study period but did not significantly increase the rate of overall anticoagulant use in this high-risk cohort.