Abstract [from journal]
Objectives: Daytime sleepiness is associated with multiple negative outcomes in older adults receiving long-term services and supports (LTSS) including reduced cognitive performance, need for greater assistance with activities of daily living and decreased social engagement. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of change in subjective daytime sleepiness among older adults during their first 2 years of receiving LTSS.
Design and setting: Secondary analysis of data from a prospective longitudinal study of older adults who received LTSS in their homes, assisted living communities or nursing homes interviewed at baseline and every 3 months for 24 months.
Participants: 470 older adults (60 years and older) newly enrolled in LTSS (mean = 81, SD = 8.7; range 60-98; 71% women).
Measurements: Subjective daytime sleepiness was assessed every 3 months through 2 years using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Multiple validated measures were used to capture health-related quality of life characteristics of enrollees and their environment, including symptom status (Symptom Bother Scale), cognition (Mini Mental Status Exam), physical function (Basic Activities of Daily Living), physical and mental general health, quality of life (Dementia Quality of Life, D-QoL), depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale) and social support (Medical Outcomes Survey-Social Support).
Results: Longitudinal mixed effects modeling was used to examine the relationship between independent variables and continuous measure of daytime sleepiness. Increased feelings of belonging, subscale of the D-QoL (effect size = -0.006, 95% CI: -0.013 to -0.0001, p = 0.045) and higher number of depressive symptoms (effect size = -0.002, 95% CI: -0.004 to -0.001, p = 0.001) at baseline were associated with slower rates of increase in daytime sleepiness over time.
Conclusions: Comprehensive baseline and longitudinal screening for changes in daytime sleepiness along with depression and perceived quality of life should be used to inform interventions aimed at reducing daytime sleepiness among older adults receiving LTSS.