Behavioral Economics / Behavior Change

The application of principles of economics and psychology to examine how individuals make choices in complex contexts--such as personal finances and health--and to improve these decisions and behaviors.

Novel Smartphone-Based Measures of Cell Phone Use While Driving in a Sample of Newly Licensed Adolescent Drivers

Jul. 26, 2018

Catherine C. McDonald, Kristen Ward, Yanlan Huang, Douglas J. Wiebe...

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of adolescent death. Cell phone use while driving is a contributor to adolescent motor vehicle crash risk. Objective and directly observable measures of cell phone use while driving are needed to implement interventions aimed at reducing cell phone–related crash risk. 

Aims: To describe novel smartphone-based measures of cell phone use while driving in a sample of newly licensed male and female adolescent drivers. 

Methods: Newly licensed...

Effect of Process- and Outcome-Based Financial Incentives on Weight Loss Among Prediabetic New York Medicaid Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Jul. 25, 2018

Eric M. VanEpps, Andrea B. Troxel, Elizabeth Villamil,  Kathryn A. Saulsgiver, Jingsan Zhu, Jo-Yu Chin, Jacqueline Matson, Joseph Anarella,  Patrick Roohan, Foster Gesten, Kevin G. Volpp

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL] 

Purpose: To determine whether different financial incentives are effective in promoting weight loss among prediabetic Medicaid recipients.

Design: Four-group, multicenter, randomized clinical trial.

Setting and Participants: Medicaid managed care enrollees residing in New York, aged 18 to 64 years, and diagnosed as prediabetic or high risk for diabetes (N = 703).

Intervention: In a 16-week program, participants were randomly

...

Effect of Greening Vacant Land on Mental Health of Community-Dwelling Adults: A Cluster Randomized Trial

Jul. 25, 2018

Eugenia C. South, Bernadette C. Hohl, Michelle C. Kondo, John M. MacDonaldCharles C. Branas

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL]

Importance: Neighborhood physical conditions have been associated with mental illness and may partially explain persistent socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of poor mental health.

Objective: To evaluate whether interventions to green vacant urban land can improve self-reported mental health.

Design, Setting, and Participants:This citywide cluster randomized trial examined 442 community-dwelling sampled adults living in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, within 110 vacant lot clusters...

Why Effective Interventions Do Not Work for All Patients: Exploring Variation in Response to a Chronic Disease Management Intervention

Jul. 16, 2018

Merritt Edlind, Nandita Mitra, David Grande, Frances K. Barg, Tamala Carter, Lindsey Turr,...

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL] 

Background: Half of all Americans have a chronic disease. Promoting healthy behaviors to decrease this burden is a national priority. A number of behavioral interventions have proven efficacy; yet even the most effective of these has high levels of nonresponse.

Objectives: In this study, we explore variation in response to an evidence-based community health worker (CHW) intervention for chronic disease management.

Research Design: We used a convergent parallel design that combined a...

Social Incentives and Gamification to Promote Weight Loss: The LOSE IT Randomized, Controlled Trial

Jul. 16, 2018

Gregory W. Kurtzman, Susan C. Day, Dylan S. Small, Marta Lynch, Jingsan Zhu, Wenli Wang, Charles A. L. Rareshide, Mitesh S. Patel

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL]

Background: Social networks influence obesity patterns, but interventions to leverage social incentives to promote weight loss have not been well evaluated.

Objective: To test the effectiveness of gamification interventions designed using insights from behavioral economics to enhance social incentives to promote weight loss.

Design: The Leveraging Our Social Experiences and Incentives Trial (LOSE IT

...

Health Warning Labels Correct Parents' Misperceptions About Sugary Drink Options

Jun. 27, 2018

Alyssa J. Moran, Christina A. Roberto

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL]

Introduction: Noncarbonated sugar-sweetened beverages, such as fruit drinks, sports drinks, and sweetened teas are increasingly promoted to and consumed by youth. These beverages may be perceived as healthier options than soda. To educate consumers about beverages high in added sugar, several cities and states have proposed policies mandating health warning labels on sugar-sweetened beverages.

Methods: In 2015, a total of 2,381 parents were randomized to a no label, calorie label, or warning label condition. An...

Loss-Framed Financial Incentives and Personalized Goal-Setting to Increase Physical Activity among Ischemic Heart Disease Patients Using Wearable Devices: The ACTIVE REWARD Trial

Jun. 13, 2018

Neel P. Chokshi, Srinath AdusumalliDylan S. Small, Alexander Morris, Jordyn Feingold, ...

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL] 

Background: Regular physical activity reduces the risk of cardiovascular events, but most ischemic heart disease (IHD) patients do not obtain enough.

Methods and Results: ACTIVE REWARD (A Clinical Trial Investigating Effects of a Randomized Evaluation of Wearable Activity Trackers with Financial Rewards) was a 24‐week home‐based, remotely monitored, randomized trial with a 16‐week intervention (8‐week ramp‐up incentive phase and 8

...

Effect of Social Comparison Feedback on Laboratory Test Ordering for Hospitalized Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

May. 31, 2018

Kira Ryskina, C. Jessica Dine, Yevgeniy Gitelman, Damien Leri, Mitesh Patel, Gregory Kurtzman, Lisa Y. Lin, ...

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Social comparison feedback is an increasingly popular strategy that uses performance report cards to modify physician behavior. Our objective was to test the effect of such feedback on the ordering of routine laboratory tests for hospitalized patients, a practice considered overused.

Methods: This was a single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Between January and June 2016, physicians on six general medicine teams at the Hospital of the University of

...

What State Legislators Say About Medicaid, and Why It Matters

May. 29, 2018

Medicaid’s federal-state partnership structure has long permitted states to adopt modifications to coverage design, including benefits and cost-sharing. That structure, combined with an Administration signaling its support for greater state flexibility and funding constraints, could produce substantial shifts in state Medicaid policy.

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