Disease Prevention / Health Promotion

Interventions, education and incentives that promote healthy behaviors and improve health outcomes.

Screening for Intimate Partner Violence in a Pediatric ED: A Quality Improvement Initiative

Mar. 6, 2020

Christina Mancheno, Brenna Aumaier, Ashlee Murray

Abstract [from journal]

Objective: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health concern and impacts the entire family unit, particularly children. We implemented an IPV screening and referral program in an urban pediatric emergency department (ED) and aimed to screen 30% of patient families for IPV by January 1, 2017.

Methods: We used a quality improvement initiative using a nonverbal screening card to screen families when the caregiver was the sole adult present and spoke English and/or Spanish, and the patient was

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Parent Moral Distress in Serious Pediatric Illness: A Dimensional Analysis

Connie M. Ulrich, PhD, RN, FAAN
Mar. 5, 2020

Kim Mooney-Doyle, Connie M. Ulrich

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Moral distress is an important and well-studied phenomenon among nurses and other healthcare providers, yet the conceptualization of parental moral distress remains unclear.

Objective: The objective of this dimensional analysis was to describe the nature of family moral distress in serious pediatric illness.

Design and Methods: A dimensional analysis of articles retrieved from a librarian-assisted systematic review of Scopus, CINAHL, and PsychInfo was conducted, focusing on

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Vaccine Exemption Requirements and Parental Vaccine Attitudes: An Online Experiment

Mar. 4, 2020

Alison M. Buttenheim, Caroline M. Joyce, José Ibarra, Jessica Agas, Kristen Feemster, Lori K. Handy, Avnika B. Amin, Saad B. Omer

Abstract [from journal]

Increases in vaccine hesitancy and vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks have focused attention on state laws governing school-entry vaccine mandates and the allowable exemptions (medical and nonmedical) from those mandates. There is substantial variation in the type of exemptions available in each state, and states with more rigorous or burdensome exemption requirements generally have lower exemption rates. States have little evidence, however, about how vaccine-hesitant parents respond to different requirements. Despite recent efforts to formulate "

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Beyond Band-Aids for Bullet Holes: Firearm Violence As a Public Health Priority

Mar. 1, 2020

Elinore J. KaufmanTherese S. Richmond

Abstract [from journal]

Objectives: To review the public health approach to preventing and treating firearm violence.

Data Sources: Peer-reviewed, published scholarship and federal data systems.

Study Selection: English-language, indexed research articles on the epidemiology, risk, prevention, and consequences of firearm violence.

Data Extraction: This narrative review includes findings related to the epidemiology and impact of firearm violence, focusing on short- and long-term outcomes

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Firearm Laws and Illegal Firearm Flow between US States

Elinore Kaufman, U of Penn
Feb. 24, 2020

Erin G. Andrade, Mark H. Hoofnagle, Elinore Kaufman, Mark J. Seamon, Adam Pah, Christopher N. Morrison

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Considerable variation in firearm legislation exists. Prior studies show an association between stronger state laws and fewer firearm deaths. We hypothesized that firearms would flow from states with weaker laws to states with stronger laws based on proximity and population.

Methods: Crime gun trace data from 2015-2017 was accessed from the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) and compared to the count and composition of firearm legislation in 2015 among the contiguous 48 states

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Adapting Andersen's Expanded Behavioral Model of Health Services Use to Include Older Adults Receiving Long-Term Services and Supports

Feb. 14, 2020

Jasmine L. TraversKaren B. Hirschman, Mary D. Naylor 

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Andersen's Expanded Behavioral Model of Health Services Use describes factors associated with the use of long-term services and supports (LTSS). This model, however, has only been tested on the intent to use such services among African-American and White older adults and not the actual use. Given the increasing diversity of older adults in the U.S., the ability to conceptualize factors associated with actual use of LTSS across racial/ethnic groups is critical.

Methods: We applied Andersen's Expanded

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Cognitively Unimpaired Adults' Reactions to Disclosure of Amyloid PET Scan Results.

Jason Karlawish, MD of Penn Medicine
Feb. 13, 2020

Emily A. Largent, Kristin Harkins, Christopher H. van Dyck, Sara Hachey, Pamela Sankar, Jason Karlawish

Abstract [from journal]

Importance: Clinical guidelines currently recommend against amyloid imaging for cognitively unimpaired persons. The goal of Alzheimer's disease (AD) prevention, together with advances in understanding the pathophysiology of AD, however, has led to trials testing drugs in cognitively unimpaired persons who show evidence of AD biomarkers. Assuming the eventual success of such trials, millions of patients will be affected. There is a need to understand the effects of biomarker disclosure on those individuals.

Design:

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Do Payor-Based Outreach Programs Reduce Medical Cost and Utilization?

Benjamin Ukert, University of Pennsylvania
Feb. 12, 2020

Benjamin Ukert, Guy David, Aaron Smith‐McLallen, Ravi Chawla
 

Abstract [from journal]

There is growing interest in using predictive analytics to drive interventions that reduce avoidable healthcare utilization. This study evaluates the impact of such an intervention utilizing claims from 2013 to 2017 for high-risk Medicare Advantage patients with congestive heart failure. A predictive algorithm using clinical and nonclinical information produced a risk score ranking for health plan members in 10 separate waves between July 2013 and May 2015. Each wave was followed by an outreach intervention. The varying capacity for outreach across

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Pharmaceutical Side Effects and Mental Health Paradoxes Among Racial-Ethnic Minorities

Feb. 1, 2020

Jason SchnittkerDuy Do

Abstract [from journal]

Sociologists have long struggled to explain the minority mental health paradox: that racial-ethnic minorities often report better mental health than non-Hispanic whites despite social environments that seem less conducive to well-being. Using data from the 2008-2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), this study provides a partial explanation for the paradox rooted in a very different disparity. Evidence from MEPS indicates that non-Hispanic whites consume more pharmaceuticals than racial-ethnic minorities for a wide variety of medical conditions

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How Psychological Insights can Inform Food Policies to Address Unhealthy Eating Habits

Feb. 1, 2020

Christina A. Roberto

Abstract [from journal]

In this article, insights from psychology and behavioral economics are identified that help explain why it is hard to maintain healthy eating habits in modern food environments. Most eating decisions engage System 1, rather than System 2, processing, making it difficult for people to consistently make healthy choices in food environments that encourage overconsumption of unhealthy foods. The psychological vulnerabilities discussed include emotions and associations mattering more than reason, difficulty processing complex information, present-biased

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Parents ASSIST (Advancing Supportive and Sexuality-Inclusive Sex Talks): Iterative Development of a Sex Communication Video Series for Parents of Gay, Bisexual, and Queer Male Adolescents

José Bauermeister
Jan. 31, 2020

Dalmacio D. Flores, Andre A. Rosario, Keosha T. Bond, Antonia M. VillarruelJose A. Bauermeister

Abstract [from journal]

Effective parent-child sex communication enhances heterosexual youths' efficacy to engage in health promotive behaviors, yet there is scarce research on parent-child sex communication with gay, bisexual, and queer (GBQ) sons during adolescence. Our aim is to describe the development of Parents ASSIST, a web-based series of animated videos for parents of GBQ adolescent males focused on (a) parental education about sexual health topics pertinent to this population's same-sex concerns, (b) modeling of communication skills for parents to broach and

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Longitudinal Remote Coaching for Implementation of Perinatal Collaborative Care: A Mixed-Methods Analysis

Ian Bennett, MD, PhD
Jan. 30, 2020

Amritha Bhat, Ian M. Bennett, Amy M. Bauer, Rinad S. Beidas, Whitney Eriksen, Frances K. Barg, Rachel Gold, Jürgen Unützer
 

Abstract [from journal]

 The collaborative care model (CoCM) is a multicomponent, team-based integrated behavioral health framework. Its effectiveness in the treatment of perinatal depression is established, but implementation has been limited. The authors used longitudinal remote coaching (LRC) as a novel implementation strategy to support systematic case review in a multistate cluster-randomized trial of CoCM for perinatal depression. They describe LRC for perinatal CoCM in three clinics and use of a mixed-methods analysis of data from LRC feedback forms and interviews

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The Role of Networks in Racial Disparities in HIV Incidence Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in the United States

José Bauermeister, Penn Nursing School
Jan. 24, 2020

Stephen Bonett, Steven Meanley, Robin Stevens, Bridgette Brawner, José Bauermeister 

Abstract [from journal]

Network factors have been proposed as potential drivers of racial disparities in HIV among Black and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). This review aimed to synthesize the extant literature on networks and racial disparities in HIV among MSM and identify potential directions for future research. We searched databases for peer-reviewed articles published between January 1, 2008 and July 1, 2018. Articles were included if the sample was comprised primarily of racial/ethnic minority MSM and measured one or more network characteristics. (n = 25). HIV

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"Becoming Myself": How Participants in a Longitudinal Substance Use Disorder Recovery Study Experienced Receiving Continuous Feedback on their Results

Jan. 23, 2020

Thomas Solgaard Svendsen, Jone Bjornestad, Tale Ekeroth Slyngstad, James R. McKay, Aleksander Waagan Skaalevik, Marius Veseth, Christian Moltu, Sverre Nesvaag 

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Being a participant in longitudinal follow-up studies is not commonly a factor considered when investigating useful self-change aspects for individuals attempting recovery from substance use disorder (SUD). This study reports on how ongoing monitoring, and feedback on data results in a longitudinal follow-up study of SUD recovery were perceived by individuals who had achieved long-term abstinence and social recovery.

Methods: Interviewers with first-hand experience with the topic conducted

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