Disease Prevention / Health Promotion

Interventions, education and incentives that promote healthy behaviors and improve health outcomes.

Patient Phenotypes Help Explain Variation in Response to a Social Gamification Weight Loss Intervention

Dec. 26, 2019

Jeffrey Lienert, Mitesh Patel

Abstract [from journal]

Purpose: This study aims to determine latent classes of study participants using baseline characteristics, explore the patterns within the groups, and determine whether the intervention had differential effects on weight loss across the groups.

Design: Secondary analysis of a completed randomized clinical trial.

Setting: Participants in a gamification intervention with social incentives who were recruited as


Association of Cognitive Biases with Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Hesitancy: A Cross-Sectional Study

Dec. 20, 2019

Tiffany D. Poares, Alison M. Buttenheim, Avnika B. Amin, Caroline M. Joyce, Rachael M. Porter, Robert A. Bednarczyk, Saad B. Omer

Abstract [from journal]

Given the link between vaccine hesitancy and vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks, it is critical to examine the cognitive processes that contribute to the development of vaccine hesitancy, especially among parents of adolescents. We conducted a secondary analysis of baseline data from a two-phase randomized trial on human papillomavirus to investigate how vaccine hesitancy and intent to vaccinate are associated with six decision-making factors: base rate neglect, conjunction fallacy, sunk cost bias, present bias


A Randomized Trial to Encourage Healthy Eating Through Workplace Delivery of Fresh Food

Carolyn Cannuscio, ScD
Dec. 16, 2019

Rachel Feuerstein-Simon, Roxanne Dupuis, Ryan Schumacher, Carolyn C. Cannuscio

Abstract [from journal]

Purpose: This study aimed to increase the consumption of home-cooked meals among employees at a large urban worksite through a fully subsidized Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) program.

Design: Randomized trial.

Setting: Worksite in a large northeast city.

Participants: Employees were recruited through flyers, e-mail listservs, and outreach from departmental


Trajectories of Evidence Based Treatment for School Children with Autism: What's the Right Level for the Implementation?

Dec. 11, 2019

Victor Lushin, David Mandell, Rinad Beidas, Steven Marcus, Heather Nuske, Victor Kaploun, Max Seidman, Daphney Gaston, Jill Locke

Abstract [from journal]

Evidence-based practices (EBP) for children with autism are under-used in special-education schools. No research compared child-level versus teacher-level influences on EBP use, which could guide implementation strategies. We derived longitudinal profiles of EBP receipt by children (N = 234) in 69 autism-support classrooms, over an academic year. We compared overall impacts of child-level and teacher-level factors on profile membership. Most children received little EBP throughout the year; however substantial subgroups received increasing, and


An Economic Analysis of Childhood Exposure to Crime and Violence

Dec. 11, 2019

The impact of childhood exposure to crime and violence is pervasive and longstanding. It might be tempting to assume that the economic losses, spread over a lifetime and across the country, cannot be calculated. But that’s just what LDI Associate Fellow Michal Gilad and co-author Abraham Gutman have done in a new working paper that attempts to calculate the consequences of such childhood exposure. The total?

History and Correlates of Smoking Cessation Behaviors among Smokers with Serious Mental Illness

Dec. 9, 2019

Su Fen Lubitz, Alex Flitter, E Paul Wileyto, Douglas Ziedonis, Nathaniel Stevens, Frank Leone, David Mandell, John Kimberly, Rinad Beidas, Robert A Schnoll

Abstract [from journal]

Introduction: Individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) smoke at rates 2-3 times greater than the general population but are less likely to receive treatment. Increasing our understanding of correlates of smoking cessation behaviors in this group can guide intervention development.

Methods: Baseline data from an ongoing trial involving smokers with SMI (N=482) were used to describe smoking cessation behaviors (i.e., quit attempts, quit motivation and smoking cessation treatment) and correlates of these


Adverse Childhood Experiences: Prevalence and Association With Adolescent Health in Malawi

Dec. 4, 2019

Rachel Kidman, Luciane R. Piccolo, Hans-Peter Kohler

Abstract [from journal]

Introduction: Childhood adversity is robustly associated with poor health across the life course. However, very few studies have examined the prevalence and implications of adverse childhood experiences in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this study is to measure adverse childhood experiences among adolescents in Malawi and examine the association with mental and physical health outcomes.

Methods: From 2017 to 2018, baseline data were collected among adolescents aged 10-16 years (n=2,089).


Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Patients who Receive Medical and Dental Care at an Urban Community Health Center

Shivan J. Mehta, MD, MBA
Dec. 3, 2019

Caitlin McDonald, Jill R. Johnson, Juan C. Castro, Catherine Reitz, Frank M. Torrisi, Shivan J. Mehta

Abstract [from journal]

Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates remain subpar, particularly among underserved populations. As the role of health care providers evolves, it has been suggested that dentists could play a larger role in preventive health. Building on this concept, dental visits could serve as an additional touchpoint for CRC screening outreach. The primary goal of this study was to compare CRC screening rates among patients who receive both dental and medical care to those who only receive medical care at an urban community health center in order to inform


Observational Study of the Association between Participation in High School Football and Self-Rated Health, Obesity, and Pain in Adulthood

Mark D. Neuman, MD
Nov. 29, 2019

Timothy G. Gaulton, Sameer K. Deshpande, Dylan S. SmallMark D. Neuman

Abstract [from journal]

American football is the most popular high school sport yet its association with health in adulthood has not been widely studied. We investigated the association between high school football and self-rated health, obesity, and pain in adulthood using a retrospective cohort study of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study from 1957 to 2004. We matched 925 high school males who played varsity football with 1,521 males who did not play football. After matching, playing football was not associated with poor or fair self-rated health (odds ratio [OR] 0.88, 95%


Clustering of Unhealthy Behaviors in a Nationally Representative Sample of U.S. Children and Adolescents

Alexander G. Fiks, MD, MSCE
Nov. 9, 2019

Stephanie L. Mayne, Senbagam Virudachalam, Alexander G. Fiks

Abstract [from journal]

Poor diet, low physical activity, sedentary behavior and smoking are modifiable risk factors for chronic diseases that often develop early in life. An improved understanding of how unhealthy behaviors co-occur within individual children across childhood and adolescence could inform the development of more effective prevention approaches. Using data from the 2011-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we calculated weighted prevalence of five unhealthy behaviors - excessive screen time, poor diet quality, low physical activity, fast