Disease Prevention / Health Promotion

Interventions, education and incentives that promote healthy behaviors and improve health outcomes.

Novel Smartphone-Based Measures of Cell Phone Use While Driving in a Sample of Newly Licensed Adolescent Drivers

Jul. 26, 2018

Catherine C. McDonald, Kristen Ward, Yanlan Huang, Douglas J. Wiebe...

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of adolescent death. Cell phone use while driving is a contributor to adolescent motor vehicle crash risk. Objective and directly observable measures of cell phone use while driving are needed to implement interventions aimed at reducing cell phone–related crash risk. 

Aims: To describe novel smartphone-based measures of cell phone use while driving in a sample of newly licensed male and female adolescent drivers. 

Methods: Newly licensed...

The Power of Academic-Practitioner Collaboration to Enhance Science and Practice Integration: Injury and Violence Prevention Case Studies

Jul. 25, 2018

L. Shakiyla Smith, Natalie Wilkins, Stephen W. Marshall, Alan Dellapenna, Joyce C. Pressley, Michael Bauer, Eugenia C. South, Keith Green

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL]

One of the most substantial challenges facing the field of injury and violence prevention is bridging the gap between scientific knowledge and its real-world application to achieve population-level impact. Much synergy is gained when academic and practice communities collaborate; however, a number of barriers prevent better integration of science and practice. This article presents 3 examples of academic-practitioner collaborations, their approaches to working together to address injury and violence issues, and emerging indications of the impact on...

Effect of Process- and Outcome-Based Financial Incentives on Weight Loss Among Prediabetic New York Medicaid Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Jul. 25, 2018

Eric M. VanEpps, Andrea B. Troxel, Elizabeth Villamil,  Kathryn A. Saulsgiver, Jingsan Zhu, Jo-Yu Chin, Jacqueline Matson, Joseph Anarella,  Patrick Roohan, Foster Gesten, Kevin G. Volpp

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL] 

Purpose: To determine whether different financial incentives are effective in promoting weight loss among prediabetic Medicaid recipients.

Design: Four-group, multicenter, randomized clinical trial.

Setting and Participants: Medicaid managed care enrollees residing in New York, aged 18 to 64 years, and diagnosed as prediabetic or high risk for diabetes (N = 703).

Intervention: In a 16-week program, participants were randomly

...

Pediatricians' Vaccine Attitudes and Practices Before and After a Major Measles Outbreak

Jul. 25, 2018

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL]

The objective of this study was to describe how a sample of pediatricians were impacted by and responded to the Disneyland measles outbreak in the United States. We conducted three repeated cross-sectional, online surveys in 2014 (before the outbreak), 2015, and 2016 (after the outbreak) among members of three state chapters of the American Academy of Pediatrics. We assessed pediatricians’ level of willingness and length of time comfortable delaying the measles–mumps–rubella (MMR) vaccine before and after the outbreak. Frequency of alternative immunization...

Factors Associated With Pediatrician Responses to Alternative Immunization Schedule Requests

Jul. 24, 2018

Abstract [from journal]

We conducted a cross-sectional online survey among 4 chapters of the American Academy of Pediatrics from July through October 2014 to describe characteristics of pediatricians and practices associated with practice-level responses to alternative immunization schedule requests. Among 374 pediatricians, 58% reported frequent alternative immunization schedule requests and 24% reported feeling comfortable using them. Pediatricians who work in practices that accommodate alternative immunization schedule requests have increased odds of having a

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Why Effective Interventions Do Not Work for All Patients: Exploring Variation in Response to a Chronic Disease Management Intervention

Jul. 16, 2018

Merritt Edlind, Nandita Mitra, David Grande, Frances K. Barg, Tamala Carter, Lindsey Turr,...

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL] 

Background: Half of all Americans have a chronic disease. Promoting healthy behaviors to decrease this burden is a national priority. A number of behavioral interventions have proven efficacy; yet even the most effective of these has high levels of nonresponse.

Objectives: In this study, we explore variation in response to an evidence-based community health worker (CHW) intervention for chronic disease management.

Research Design: We used a convergent parallel design that combined a...

Social Incentives and Gamification to Promote Weight Loss: The LOSE IT Randomized, Controlled Trial

Jul. 16, 2018

Gregory W. Kurtzman, Susan C. Day, Dylan S. Small, Marta Lynch, Jingsan Zhu, Wenli Wang, Charles A. L. Rareshide, Mitesh S. Patel

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL]

Background: Social networks influence obesity patterns, but interventions to leverage social incentives to promote weight loss have not been well evaluated.

Objective: To test the effectiveness of gamification interventions designed using insights from behavioral economics to enhance social incentives to promote weight loss.

Design: The Leveraging Our Social Experiences and Incentives Trial (LOSE IT

...

Police Killings and Their Spillover Effects on the Mental Health of Black Americans: A Population-Based, Quasi-Experimental Study

Jul. 2, 2018

Jacob Bor, Atheendar S. Venkataramani, David R Williams, Alexander C. Tsai

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Police kill more than 300 black Americans—at least a quarter of them unarmed—each year in the USA. These events might have spillover effects on the mental health of people not directly affected.

Methods: In this population-based, quasi-experimental study, we combined novel data on police killings with individual-level data from the nationally representative 2013–15 US Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (

...

Complexity of the Relationships of Pain, Posttraumatic Stress, and Depression in Combat-Injured Populations: An Integrative Review to Inform Evidence-Based Practice

Jun. 27, 2018

Nicholas A. Giordano, Christine Bader, Therese S. Richmond, Rosemary C. Polomano 

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL]

Background: Understanding the complex interrelationships between combat injuries, physical health, and mental health symptoms is critical to addressing the healthcare needs of wounded military personnel and veterans. The relationship between injury characteristics, pain, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression among combat-injured military personnel is unique to modern conflicts and understudied in the nursing literature.

Aim: This integrative review synthesizes clinical presentations and relationships...

The ‘Warming Effect’ of DACA on American Children

Jun. 4, 2018

New research shows that young citizen children were more likely to receive important social services when their undocumented mothers became eligible for the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program. Providing evidence of the multi-generational spillover effects of immigration policy, this new analysis comes as the U.S.

A Pragmatic Trial of E-Cigarettes, Incentives, and Drugs for Smoking Cessation

Research Brief
May. 25, 2018

In a trial examining five approaches to smoking cessation among over 6,000 U.S. employees, financial incentives combined with free cessation aids were more effective at getting employees to stop smoking than free cessation aids alone. Specifically, the most effective intervention (free cessation aids plus $600 in redeemable funds) helped 2.9% of participants stop smoking through six months after their target quit date; this rate jumped to 12.7% among participants who actively engaged in the trial and were more motivated to quit. For employees with access to usual care (information and a free motivational text messaging service), offering free cessation aids or electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) did not help them quit smoking.

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