Disease Prevention / Health Promotion

Interventions, education and incentives that promote healthy behaviors and improve health outcomes.

Health Screening for Emerging and Non-Communicable Disease Burdens Among the Global Poor

Research Brief
Jan. 26, 2021

Among adults in rural Malawi, population health screening for high blood pressure (BP) led to a 22-percentage point drop in the likelihood of being hypertensive four years later. Individuals with elevated BP received a referral letter upon initial screening; at follow-up, they had lower BP and higher self-reported mental health than individuals with similar BP who were just below the threshold for referral. Population health screenings can reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases in low-income countries.

Prior Sexually Transmitted Infection and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Risk Perception in a Diverse At-Risk Population of Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Individuals

Jan. 4, 2021

Daniel Resnick, Knashawn Morales, Robert Gross, Danielle Petsis, Danielle Fiore, Annet Davis-Vogel, David Metzger, Ian Frank, Sarah Wood

Abstract [from journal]

Prior sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are associated with higher rates of subsequent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but the influence of prior STIs on perceived vulnerability to HIV remains unclear. We aimed to assess this relationship, hypothesizing that a prior STI diagnosis is associated with higher self-assessed vulnerability to HIV. We performed a cross-sectional study of men and transgender individuals who have sex with men screening for HIV prevention trials in Philadelphia. An unadjusted regression


The Healthy Food Marketing Strategies Study: Design, Baseline Characteristics, and Supermarket Compliance

Karen Glanz
Dec. 31, 2020

Karen Glanz, Annie Chung, Knashawn H. Morales, Pui L. Kwong, Douglas Wiebe, Donna Paulhamus Giordano, Colleen M. Brensinger, Allison Karpyn

Abstract [from journal]

Identifying effective strategies to promote healthy eating and reduce obesity is a priority in the USA, especially among low-income and minority groups, who often have less access to healthy food and higher rates of obesity. Efforts to improve food access have led to more supermarkets in low-income, ethnically diverse neighborhoods. However, this alone may not be enough to reduce food insecurity and improve residents' diet quality and health. This paper summarizes the design, methods, baseline findings, and supermarket in-store


Increasing HIV Testing and Viral Suppression via Stigma Reduction in a Social Networking Mobile Health Intervention Among Black and Latinx Young Men and Transgender Women Who Have Sex With Men (HealthMpowerment): Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

Dec. 16, 2020

Kathryn Elizabeth Muessig, Jesse M. Golinkoff, Lisa B. Hightow-Weidman, Aimee E. Rochelle, Marta I. Mulawa, Sabina Hirshfield, A. Lina Rosengren, Subhash Aryal, Nickie Buckner, M. Skye Wilson, Dovie L. Watson, Steven Houang, José Arturo Bauermeister

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Stigma and discrimination related to sexuality, race, ethnicity, and HIV status negatively impact HIV testing, engagement in care, and consistent viral suppression (VS) among young Black and Latinx men who have sex with men and transgender women who have sex with men (YBLMT). Few interventions address the effects of intersectional stigma among youth living with HIV and those at risk for HIV within the same virtual space.

Objective: Building on the success of the HealthMpowerment (


COVID-19 Screening Strategies for Repopulating College Campuses

Dec. 9, 2020

As some college and university leaders plan to resume in-person instruction this spring, it is critical to determine the best way to identify COVID-19 cases among students to safely repopulate campuses. However, there is a lack of consensus about the optimal testing strategy to identify the most infections.

Prevalence of Informal Caregiving in States Participating in the US Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act Balancing Incentive Program, 2011-2018

Dec. 1, 2020

Rebecca Anastos-Wallen, Rachel M. WernerPaula Chatterjee

Abstract [from journal]

Importance: The Balancing Incentives Program (BIP), established under the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act provided federal funding for states to shift long-term care out of institutional settings and into the home. However, the association of its implementation with informal caregiving is not known.

Objective: To evaluate the association between BIP participation and the prevalence and frequency of informal caregiving and socioeconomic disparities among caregivers.


Temporal Networks of Tobacco Withdrawal Symptoms During Smoking Cessation Treatment

David Lydon Staley
Nov. 30, 2020

David M. Lydon-Staley, Adam M. Leventhal, Megan E. Piper, Robert A. Schnoll, Danielle S. Bassett

Abstract [from journal]

A recently developed network perspective on tobacco withdrawal posits that withdrawal symptoms causally influence one another across time, rather than simply being indicators of a latent syndrome. Evidence supporting a network perspective would shift the focus of tobacco withdrawal research and intervention toward studying and treating individual withdrawal symptoms and intersymptom associations. Here we construct and examine temporal tobacco withdrawal networks that describe the interplay among withdrawal symptoms across time using


Integrating Implementation Science in Clinical Research to Maximize Public Health Impact: A Call for the Reporting and Alignment of Implementation Strategy Use With Implementation Outcomes in Clinical Research

Nov. 25, 2020

Brittany N. RuddMolly DavisRinad S. Beidas

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Although comprehensive reporting guidelines for implementation strategy use within implementation research exist, they are rarely used by clinical (i.e., efficacy and effectiveness) researchers. In this debate, we argue that the lack of comprehensive reporting of implementation strategy use and alignment of those strategies with implementation outcomes within clinical research is a missed opportunity to efficiently narrow research-to-practice gaps.

Main body: We review ways that


Oral Anticoagulant Use in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and Mitral Valve Repair

Nov. 24, 2020

Ashwin S. Nathan, Lin Yang, Zhi Geng, Elias J. DayoubSameed Ahmed M. Khatana, Paul N. Fiorilli, Howard C. Herrmann, Wilson Y. Szeto, Pavan Atluri, Michael A. Acker, Nimesh D. Desai, David S. Frankel, Francis E. Marchlinski, ...

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who have undergone mitral valve repair are at risk for thromboembolic strokes. Prior to 2019, only vitamin K antagonists were recommended for patients with AF who had undergone mitral valve repair despite the introduction of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) in 2010.

Objective: To characterize the use of anticoagulants in patients with AF who underwent surgical mitral valve repair (sMVR) or transcatheter mitral valve repair (tMVR).