Disease Prevention / Health Promotion

Interventions, education and incentives that promote healthy behaviors and improve health outcomes.

Violence in Rural, Suburban, and Urban Schools in Pennsylvania

May. 10, 2018

Kalen Flynn, Catherine C. McDonald, ...

Abstract [from journal]

School violence is a public health issue with direct and collateral consequences that has academic and social impacts for youth. School violence is often considered a uniquely urban problem, yet more research is needed to understand how violence in rural and suburban schools may be similar or different from urban counterparts. Using school violence data from a state with urban, suburban, and rural counties, we explored the landscape of school violence in Pennsylvania (PA) through mapping, descriptive statistics, and factor analysis. Results show school...

Association of Race and Socioeconomic Status with Automatic External Defibrillator Training Prevalence in the United States

May. 10, 2018

D. Daphne Owen, Shaun K. McGovern, Andrew Murray, Marion Leary, Marina del Rios, Raina M.Merchant, Benjamin S.Abella, David Dutwin, Audrey L. Blewer...

Abstract [from journal]

Aim of the Study: Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) improve survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), however bystander use remains low. Limited AED training may contribute to infrequent use of these devices, yet no studies have assessed AED training nationally. Given previously documented racial disparities among Latinos in CPR provision and OHCA outcomes, we hypothesized that racial and socioeconomic differences exist in AED training, with Whites having increased training compared to Latinos and higher

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Attitudes on Technological, Social, and Behavioral Economic Strategies to Reduce Cellphone Use While Driving in Teens

Apr. 25, 2018

Abstract [from journal]

Objective: The majority of U.S. teens admit to handheld cellphone use while driving, an increasingly common cause of crashes. Attitudes towards novel cellphone applications and settings that block use while driving are poorly understood, potentially limiting uptake. We examined teens' willingness to reduce cellphone use while driving and perceptions of potential strategies to limit this behavior.

Methods: Teen drivers (n = 153) aged 16-17 who owned smartphones and admitted to texting while driving completed an online...

Simulated Driving Performance, Self-Reported Driving Behaviors, and Mental Health Symptoms in Adolescent Novice Drivers

Apr. 9, 2018

Catherine C. McDonald, Marilyn S. Sommers, Jamison D. Fargo, Thomas Seacrist, Thomas Power

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Risky driving behaviors contribute to adolescent injury, disability, and death, yet little is known about how mental health factors are associated with adolescent driving behaviors.

Objectives: The purpose of the research was to determine the association of risky driving behaviors and mental health symptoms in novice adolescent drivers.

Methods: We recruited a convenience sample (n = 60) of adolescents to complete an assessment of driving performance errors in a high-fidelity...

Does Spending Time Outdoors Reduce Stress? A Review of Real-Time Stress Response to Outdoor Environments

Apr. 4, 2018

Michelle C. Kondo, Sara F. Jacoby, Eugenia C. South

Abstract [from journal]

Everyday environmental conditions impact human health. One mechanism underlying this relationship is the experience of stress. Through systematic review of published literature, we explore how stress has been measured in real-time non-laboratory studies of stress responses to deliberate exposure to outdoor environments. The types of exposures evaluated in this review include: nature viewing, outdoor walks, outdoor exercise and gardening. We characterize study design, modalities of stress measurements, and statistical estimates of effect and significance....

From Medical Care to Health and Well-being

Feb. 20, 2018

At a recent LDI seminar, Nico Pronk, PhD, President of HealthPartners Institute, and Chief Science Officer of HealthPartners, Inc., called for a paradigm shift in how we think about health care in the U.S.  “We pay a ton of money for medical care, [but] we don't get a lot of value for that investment. Do we need more medical care, or do we actually need a shift towards more health and well-being?” he asked.[content_elements:element:0]

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