Disease Prevention / Health Promotion

Interventions, education and incentives that promote healthy behaviors and improve health outcomes.

Financial Incentives for Achieving and Maintaining Viral Suppression Among HIV-positive Adults in Uganda: A Randomised Controlled Trial

Jan. 17, 2019

Harsha Thirumurthy, Alex Ndyabakira, Kara Marson, Devy Emperador, Moses Kamya, Diane Havlir, Dalsone Kwarisiima, Gabriel Chamie

Summary [from journal]

Background: Viral suppression among HIV-positive individuals is essential for protecting health and preventing HIV transmission. Financial incentives have shown promise in modifying various health behaviours in low-income countries but few studies have assessed whether they can improve HIV treatment outcomes. We aimed to determine the impact of time-limited financial incentives on viral suppression among HIV-positive adults in rural Uganda.

Methods: We did a randomised controlled trial in four rural Ugandan parishes....

Experiences With Medical Exemptions After a Change in Vaccine Exemption Policy in California

Nov. 6, 2018

Salini MohantyAlison M. Buttenheim, Caroline M. Joyce, Amanda C. Howa, Daniel Salmon, Saad B. Omer

Abstract [from journal]

Video Abstract

Objectives: In 2015, California passed Senate Bill 227 (SB277), eliminating nonmedical vaccine exemptions for school entry. Our objective for this study was to describe the experiences of health officers and immunization staff addressing medical exemption requests under SB277.

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Firearm Violence: A Global Priority for Nursing Science

Sep. 19, 2018

Therese S. Richmond, Matthew Foman

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL]

Purpose: This purpose of this article is to frame firearm violence as a health and public health problem, to illustrate the magnitude of the problem, to examine factors that increase the risk to be injured by a firearm, or conversely, that confer protection, and to identify relevant priority areas for nursing science.

Organizing Content: Firearm violence results in physical and psychological injuries and is a global health priority. Firearm violence is

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Situational Use of Child Restraint Systems and Carpooling Behaviors in Parents and Caregivers

Sep. 5, 2018

Catherine C. McDonald, Erin Kennedy, Linda Fleisher, and Mark R. Zonfrillo

Abstract [from journal]

Suboptimal compliance with child restraint system (CRS) recommendations can increase risk for injury or death in a motor vehicle crash. The purpose of this study was to examine scenarios associated with incomplete CRS use and non-use in children ages 4⁻10 years. We used a cross-sectional online survey with a convenience sample of parent/caregivers from the United States, age ≥18 years, with a child age 4⁻10 years in their home, who could read and spoke English, and drove child ≥6 times in previous three months. We used descriptive statistics and Mann-

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Regional Differences in the Impact of the “Stand Your Ground” Law in Florida

Sep. 5, 2018

Benjamin Ukert, Douglas J. Wiebe, David K. Humphreys

Abstract [from journal]

In October 2005, Florida relaxed restrictions on the use of lethal force in self-defense with the Florida stand your ground law (SYG). We examined whether and how the impact of the Florida SYG varied based on the demographic and economic conditions of each of its counties. Using data from the Florida Universal Crime Reports on homicides and firearm homicides from 1999 to 2014, we found that the impact differed significantly by county urbanization, unemployment, and pre-law homicide rates. The largest increases in homicide and firearm homicide occurred

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Association of Pregnancy History and Cervical Cancer Screening in a Community Sample of Sexual Minority Women

Aug. 23, 2018

Madelyne Z. Greene,Tonda L. Hughes, Marilyn S. Sommers, Alexandra Hanlon, and Salimah H. Meghani

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Sexual minority women (SMW) face barriers to healthcare that may result in lower utilization of cervical cancer screening. Previous experiences with the healthcare system-specifically reproductive health-related encounters-have the potential to affect future use of screening services. This study aimed to examine the association between pregnancy history and cervical cancer screening in a diverse sample of SMW. Anderson's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use guided the selection of variables included in the study.

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Patient and Physician Predictors of Hyperlipidemia Screening and Statin Prescription

Aug. 23, 2018

Sneha Kannan, David A. Asch, Gregory W. Kurtzman, Steve Honeywell Jr, Susan C. Day, and Mitesh S. Patel

ABSTRACT [from journal]

Objectives: Appropriate lipid management has been demonstrated to reduce cardiovascular events, but rates of hyperlipidemia screening and statin therapy are suboptimal. We aimed to evaluate patient and physician predictors of guideline-concordant hyperlipidemia screening and statin prescription.

Study Design: Retrospective study of patients with primary care provider (PCP) visits from 2014 to 2016 at the University of Pennsylvania Health System.

Methods: Data on patients, screening orders, and...

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