Disease Prevention / Health Promotion

Interventions, education and incentives that promote healthy behaviors and improve health outcomes.

How Primary Care Provider Communication With Team Relates To Patients’ Disease Management

Ingrid Nembhard, PhD, MS, Associate Professor at the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School
Jul. 1, 2020

 Yuna S.H. Lee, Marissa D. King, Daren Anderson, Paul D. Cleary, Ingrid M. Nembhard

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Investigating primary care provider (PCP)-team communication can provide insight into how colleagues work together to become high-functioning teams more able to address an increasingly complex set of tasks associated with chronic disease management.

Objective: To assess how PCP communication with their care team relates to patients’ health.

Research Design: Longitudinal study of how 3

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Persistent Disparities In Smoking Rates Among PLWH Compared To The General Population In Philadelphia, 2009-2014

Robert Gross, MD, MSCE
Jun. 26, 2020

Cedric H. Bien-Gund, Grace H. Choi, Antonios Mashas, Pamela A. Shaw, Melissa Miller, Robert Gross, Kathleen A. Brady

Abstract [from journal]

Despite reductions in smoking rates in the general population, little is known about recent smoking trends among people living with HIV (PLWH). We compared the risk for smoking and temporal trends in smoking among PLWH and the general population in the Philadelphia metropolitan area between 2009 and 2014. We used weighted logistic regression to assess the relation between HIV and smoking, and examined temporal smoking trends. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for smoking comparing PLWH to the general population was 1.80 (95% CI 1.55-2.09)

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COVID-19 And Cardiac Arrhythmias

Jun. 20, 2020

Anjali Bhatla, Michael M. Mayer, Srinath Adusumalli, Matthew C. Hyman, Eric Oh, Ann Tierney, Juwann Moss, Anwar A. Chahal, George Anesi, Srinivas Denduluri, Christopher M. Domenico, Jeffrey Arkles, Benjamin S. Abella, John R. Bullinga, David J. Callans, Sanjay Dixit, Andrew E....

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Early studies suggest that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a high incidence of cardiac arrhythmias. SARS-CoV-2 infection may cause injury to cardiac myocytes and increase arrhythmia risk.

Objective: To evaluate the risk of cardiac arrest and arrhythmias including incident atrial fibrillation (AF), bradyarrhythmias, and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) in a large urban population hospitalized for COVID-19. We also evaluated correlations between the

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Development Of Persistent Opioid Use After Cardiac Surgery

Nimesh Desai, MD, PhD
Jun. 17, 2020

Chase R. Brown, Zehang Chen, Fabliha Khurshan, Peter W. Groeneveld, Nimesh D. Desai

Abstract [from journal]

Importance  The overuse of opioids for acute pain management has led to an epidemic of persistent opioid use.

Objective  To determine the proportion of opioid-naive patients who develop persistent opioid use after cardiac surgery and investigate the association between the initial amount of opioids prescribed at discharge and the likelihood of developing new persistent opioid use.

Design, Setting, and Participants  This retrospective cohort study used data from a national...

A Targeted Program In An Academic Rheumatology Practice To Improve Compliance With Opioid Prescribing Guidelines For The Treatment Of Chronic Pain

Michael Ashburn, MD, MPH, MBA
Jun. 17, 2020

Eric J. Wang, Rebecca Helgesen, Chadwick R. Johr, Hannah S. Lacko, Michael A. Ashburn, Peter A. Merkel

Abstract [from journal]

Objective: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and many state governments have issued guidelines for opioid prescribing for the treatment of chronic non-cancer-associated pain. We sought to decrease practice variation and increase adherence to these guidelines in a tertiary academic Rheumatology practice by developing an interdisciplinary Opioid Working Group and using Electronic Health Record (EHR)-integrated data feedback.

Methods: Division leadership and providers

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Determinants Of Stigma Among Patients With Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection

Jun. 5, 2020

M. Elle Saine, Julia E. Szymczak, Tyler M. Moore, Laura P. Bamford, Frances K. Barg, Jason SchnittkerJohn H. HolmesNandita Mitra, Vincent Lo Re

Abstract [from journal]

Stigma around hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important and understudied barrier to HCV treatment and elimination. The determinants of HCV-related stigma, including the impacts of stage of HCV treatment (i.e., spontaneously-cleared; diagnosed, untreated; previously treated, not cured; currently being treated; treated, cured) and coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), remain unknown. To address these gaps, we conducted a cross-sectional study among patients with a history of HCV infection (n=270) at outpatient

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Evaluating The Impact Of Oncology Care Model Reporting Requirements On Biomarker Testing And Treatment

Jun. 4, 2020

Emily H Castellanos, Abigail Orlando, Xinran Ma, Ravi B Parikh, Gillian O'Connell, Neal J Meropol, James Hamrick, Blythe J S Adamson

Abstract [from journal]

Purpose: The Oncology Care Model (OCM) is Medicare's first alternative payment model program for patients with cancer. As of October 2017, participating practices were required to report biomarker testing of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (aNSCLC). Our objective was to evaluate the effect of this OCM reporting requirement on quality of care.

Methods: We selected patients with aNSCLC receiving care in practices in a nationwide de-identified electronic health record-derived

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Maximum Daily Temperature, Precipitation, Ultra-Violet Light And Rates Of Transmission Of SARS-Cov-2 In The United States

Douglas Wiebe, PhD, University of Pennsylvania
May. 30, 2020

Shiv T. Sehra, Justin D. Salciccioli, Douglas J. Wiebe, Shelby Fundin, Joshua F. Baker

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Previous reports have suggested that transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is reduced by higher temperatures and higher humidity. We analyzed case-data from the United States to investigate effects of temperature, precipitation, and UV Light on community transmission of SARS-CoV-2.

Methods: Daily reported cases of SARS-CoV-2 across the United States from 01/22/2020 to 04/03/2020 were analyzed. We used negative binomial regression modelling to investigate whether daily maximum temperature,

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A Pilot Randomized Trial Of Incentive Strategies To Promote HIV Retesting In Rural Uganda

May. 29, 2020

Gabriel Chamie, Alex Ndyabakira, Kara G. Marson, Devy M. Emperador, Moses R. Kamya, Diane V. Havlir, Dalsone Kwarisiima, Harsha Thirumurthy

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Retesting for HIV is critical to identifying newly-infected persons and reinforcing prevention efforts among at-risk adults. Incentives can increase one-time HIV testing, but their role in promoting retesting is unknown. We sought to test feasibility and acceptability of incentive strategies, including commitment contracts, to promote HIV retesting among at-risk adults in rural Uganda.

Methods: At-risk HIV-negative adults were enrolled in a pilot trial assessing feasibility and

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Vaccine Rationing And The Urgency Of Social Justice In The Covid-19 Response

May. 28, 2020

Harald Schmidt

Abstract [from journal]

The Covid-19 pandemic needs to be considered from two perspectives simultaneously. First, there are questions about which policies are most effective and fair in the here and now, as the pandemic unfolds. These polices concern, for example, who should receive priority in being tested, how to implement contact tracing, or how to decide who should get ventilators or vaccines when not all can. Second, it is imperative to anticipate the medium- and longer-term consequences that these policies have. The case of vaccine rationing is

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Treatments Administered To The First 9152 Reported Cases Of COVID-19: A Systematic Review

May. 27, 2020

David C. Fajgenbaum, Johnson S. Khor, Alexander Gorzewski, Mark-Avery Tamakloe, Victoria Powers, Joseph J. Kakkis, Mileva Repasky, Anne Taylor, Alexander Beschloss, Laura Hernandez-Miyares, Beatrice Go, Vivek Nimgaonkar, Madison S. McCarthy, Casey J. Kim, Ruth-Anne Langan Pai, ...

Abstract [from journal]

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2/2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has created a global pandemic with no approved treatments or vaccines. Many treatments have already been administered to COVID-19 patients but have not been systematically evaluated. We performed a systematic literature review to identify all treatments reported to be administered to COVID-19 patients and to assess time to clinically meaningful response for treatments with sufficient data. We searched PubMed, BioRxiv, MedRxiv, and ChinaXiv for articles reporting treatments

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