Disease Prevention / Health Promotion

Interventions, education and incentives that promote healthy behaviors and improve health outcomes.

Observational Study of the Association between Participation in High School Football and Self-Rated Health, Obesity, and Pain in Adulthood

Mark D. Neuman, MD
Nov. 29, 2019

Timothy G. Gaulton, Sameer K. Deshpande, Dylan S. SmallMark D. Neuman

Abstract [from journal]

American football is the most popular high school sport yet its association with health in adulthood has not been widely studied. We investigated the association between high school football and self-rated health, obesity, and pain in adulthood using a retrospective cohort study of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study from 1957 to 2004. We matched 925 high school males who played varsity football with 1,521 males who did not play football. After matching, playing football was not associated with poor or fair self-rated health (odds ratio [OR] 0.88, 95%


Clustering of Unhealthy Behaviors in a Nationally Representative Sample of U.S. Children and Adolescents

Alexander G. Fiks, MD, MSCE
Nov. 9, 2019

Stephanie L. Mayne, Senbagam Virudachalam, Alexander G. Fiks

Abstract [from journal]

Poor diet, low physical activity, sedentary behavior and smoking are modifiable risk factors for chronic diseases that often develop early in life. An improved understanding of how unhealthy behaviors co-occur within individual children across childhood and adolescence could inform the development of more effective prevention approaches. Using data from the 2011-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we calculated weighted prevalence of five unhealthy behaviors - excessive screen time, poor diet quality, low physical activity, fast


Understanding and Addressing Social Determinants to Advance Cancer Health Equity in the United States: A Blueprint for Practice, Research, and Policy

Oct. 29, 2019

Kassandra I. Alcaraz, Tracy L. Wiedt, Elvan C. Daniels, K. Robin Yabroff, Carmen E. Guerra, Richard C. Wender

Abstract [from journal]

Although cancer mortality rates declined in the United States in recent decades, some populations experienced little benefit from advances in cancer prevention, early detection, treatment, and survivorship care. In fact, some cancer disparities between populations of low and high socioeconomic status widened during this period. Many potentially preventable cancer deaths continue to occur, and disadvantaged populations bear a disproportionate burden. Reducing the burden of cancer and eliminating cancer-related disparities will require more focused and


Social Support Networks Among Young Men and Transgender Women of Color Receiving HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis

Robert Gross, MD, MSCE
Oct. 28, 2019

Sarah Wood, Nadia Dowshen, José A. Bauermeister, Linden Lalley-Chareczko, Joshua Franklin, Danielle Petsis, Meghan Swyryn, Kezia Barnett, Gary E. Weissman, Helen C. Koenig, Robert Gross

Abstract [from journal]

Purpose: The aim of the study was to characterize perceived social support for young men and transgender women who have sex with men (YM/TWSM) taking HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).

Methods: Mixed-methods study of HIV-negative YM/TWSM of color prescribed oral PrEP. Participants completed egocentric network inventories characterizing their social support networks and identifying PrEP adherence support figures. A subset (n = 31) completed semistructured interviews exploring adherence support and qualities of


Insights Into Veterans' Perspectives on a Peer Support Program for Glycemic Management

Judy A. Shea, PhD
Oct. 9, 2019

Briana D. Lott, Tanisha N. Dicks, Shimrit Keddem, Valerie S. Ganetsky, Judy A. Shea, Judith A. Long


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the mentor-mentee relationship in veterans with type 2 diabetes and gain insight into successful pairings.

Methods: Qualitative semistructured interviews were conducted as part of a peer mentoring randomized controlled trial to understand participants' experiences, their relationship with their partner, and how the intervention affected self-care behaviors. Purposive sampling was done to ensure adequate representation of mentees who made large strides in reaching their


8 Months to 5 Days: What Happened When Pennsylvania Changed the Vaccination Regulations for Provisional Enrollment?

Sep. 30, 2019

Salini Mohanty, Paul Delamater, Kristen Feemster, Alison M. Buttenheim

Abstract [from journal]

In March 2017, the Pennsylvania Department of Health reduced the time allowed to demonstrate compliance with school-entry vaccination requirements from eight months to five days. We describe changes in provisional enrollment, vaccine exemptions, and vaccine coverage rates before and after the new regulation. Across Pennsylvania, provisional enrollment decreased from 11.1 % in 2016/17 to 2.5% in 2017/18 (77% relative decrease). Personal belief exemptions continued a modest upward trend, similar to previous years, and medical exemptions remained steady


New Strategies to Tackle the Combined Biological and Social Context of Preterm Birth

Sep. 3, 2019

Diana Montoya-Williams, Ramzi G. Salloum, Scott A. Lorch

Abstract [from journal]

Objective: Preterm birth rates in the population and associated racial inequities have remained relatively unchanged in the United States despite research aimed at prevention. This is potentially the result of the multifactorial pathophysiologic pathways that result in preterm birth, where biological and social drivers intersect in unique ways for different women. The field of dissemination and implementation (D&I) science may address this issue by promoting the contextually-aware uptake of science into health and health care


Effects of Age, Sex, Race/Ethnicity, and Allergy Status in Obesity-Related Pediatric Asthma

Christopher B. Forrest, MD, PhD
Aug. 30, 2019

Jason E. Lang, H. Timothy Bunnell, John J. Lima, Jobayer Hossain, Tim Wysocki, Leonard Bacharier, Amanda Dempsey, Lisa Ulrich, Matthew R. Test, Christopher B. Forrest

Abstract [from journal]

Rationale: Obesity in children increases the risk for new asthma. How age, sex, race/ethnicity, and allergy status affect the relationship between obesity and asthma is unclear. This study describes the relationship between high body mass index (BMI) and incident asthma.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to compare asthma incidence among normal weight, overweight, and obese 2 to 6, 7 to 11, and 12 to 17 year olds to define the effects of sex, race/ethnicity, and allergy status. Weight status


Self-Care Research: Where Are We Now? Where Are We Going?

Barbara J. Riegel, DNSc, RN, FAAN, FAHA
Aug. 23, 2019

Barbara Riegel, Sandra B. Dunbar, Donna Fitzsimons, Kenneth E. Freedland, Christopher S. Lee, Sandy Middleton, Anna Stromberg, Ercole Vellone, David E. Webber, Tiny Jaarsma

Abstract [from journal]

Background and Objective: The beneficial effects of self-care include improved well-being and lower morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. In this article we address the current state of self-care research and propose an agenda for future research based on the inaugural conference of the International Center for Self-Care Research held in Rome, Italy in June 2019. The vision of this Center is a world where self-care is prioritized by individuals, families, and communities and is the first line of approach in every health care


Perspectives on State Vaccine Education Mandate Policy and Implementation among Public Health Department Officials: A Qualitative Study

Kristen Feemster, MD, MPH, MSHP
Aug. 19, 2019

Holden Caplan, Tuhina Srivastava, Kristen A. Feemster

Abstract [from journal]

In response to the increase in non-medical vaccine exemptions (NME), many states have adopted education mandates (EM), required vaccine education for parents requesting NMEs for their school-age children, but these EMs vary greatly in implementation. In order to learn about the administrative aspects of each state's EM, we interviewed fourteen health department officials from nine states with EMs. Interviews were conducted over the phone, transcribed by a professional transcription service, and double-coded using NVivo 12 by two members of the study