Disease Prevention / Health Promotion

Interventions, education and incentives that promote healthy behaviors and improve health outcomes.

Experiences With Medical Exemptions After a Change in Vaccine Exemption Policy in California

Nov. 6, 2018

Salini MohantyAlison M. Buttenheim, Caroline M. Joyce, Amanda C. Howa, Daniel Salmon, Saad B. Omer

Abstract [from journal]

Video Abstract

Objectives: In 2015, California passed Senate Bill 227 (SB277), eliminating nonmedical vaccine exemptions for school entry. Our objective for this study was to describe the experiences of health officers and immunization staff addressing medical exemption requests under SB277.

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Firearm Violence: A Global Priority for Nursing Science

Sep. 19, 2018

Therese S. Richmond, Matthew Foman

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL]

Purpose: This purpose of this article is to frame firearm violence as a health and public health problem, to illustrate the magnitude of the problem, to examine factors that increase the risk to be injured by a firearm, or conversely, that confer protection, and to identify relevant priority areas for nursing science.

Organizing Content: Firearm violence results in physical and psychological injuries and is a global health priority. Firearm violence is

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Situational Use of Child Restraint Systems and Carpooling Behaviors in Parents and Caregivers

Sep. 5, 2018

Catherine C. McDonald, Erin Kennedy, Linda Fleisher, and Mark R. Zonfrillo

Abstract [from journal]

Suboptimal compliance with child restraint system (CRS) recommendations can increase risk for injury or death in a motor vehicle crash. The purpose of this study was to examine scenarios associated with incomplete CRS use and non-use in children ages 4⁻10 years. We used a cross-sectional online survey with a convenience sample of parent/caregivers from the United States, age ≥18 years, with a child age 4⁻10 years in their home, who could read and spoke English, and drove child ≥6 times in previous three months. We used descriptive statistics and Mann-

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Regional Differences in the Impact of the “Stand Your Ground” Law in Florida

Sep. 5, 2018

Benjamin Ukert, Douglas J. Wiebe, David K. Humphreys

Abstract [from journal]

In October 2005, Florida relaxed restrictions on the use of lethal force in self-defense with the Florida stand your ground law (SYG). We examined whether and how the impact of the Florida SYG varied based on the demographic and economic conditions of each of its counties. Using data from the Florida Universal Crime Reports on homicides and firearm homicides from 1999 to 2014, we found that the impact differed significantly by county urbanization, unemployment, and pre-law homicide rates. The largest increases in homicide and firearm homicide occurred

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Patient and Physician Predictors of Hyperlipidemia Screening and Statin Prescription

Aug. 23, 2018

Sneha Kannan, David A. Asch, Gregory W. Kurtzman, Steve Honeywell Jr, Susan C. Day, and Mitesh S. Patel

ABSTRACT [from journal]

Objectives: Appropriate lipid management has been demonstrated to reduce cardiovascular events, but rates of hyperlipidemia screening and statin therapy are suboptimal. We aimed to evaluate patient and physician predictors of guideline-concordant hyperlipidemia screening and statin prescription.

Study Design: Retrospective study of patients with primary care provider (PCP) visits from 2014 to 2016 at the University of Pennsylvania Health System.

Methods: Data on patients, screening orders, and...

Association of Pregnancy History and Cervical Cancer Screening in a Community Sample of Sexual Minority Women

Aug. 23, 2018

Madelyne Z. Greene,Tonda L. Hughes, Marilyn S. Sommers, Alexandra Hanlon, and Salimah H. Meghani

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Sexual minority women (SMW) face barriers to healthcare that may result in lower utilization of cervical cancer screening. Previous experiences with the healthcare system-specifically reproductive health-related encounters-have the potential to affect future use of screening services. This study aimed to examine the association between pregnancy history and cervical cancer screening in a diverse sample of SMW. Anderson's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use guided the selection of variables included in the study.

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Effect of a Behavioral Intervention on Perpetrating and Experiencing Forced Sex Among South African Adolescents: A Secondary Analysis of a Cluster Randomized Trial

Aug. 17, 2018

John Barton Jemmott III, Loretta Sweet Jemmott, Ann O’Leary, Zolani Philemon Ngwane, Anne Marie Teitelman, Monde Blessing Makiwane, Scarlett L. Bellamy

Abstract [from journal]

Importance: Scant research has investigated interventions to reduce forced sexual intercourse among adolescents. The need for such interventions is especially great in South Africa, which has some of the highest rates of sexual assault in the world.

Objectives: To determine whether an HIV/sexually transmitted disease risk-reduction intervention that reduced sexual risk behavior and sexually transmitted disease prevalence also reduced the perpetration and experience of forced sex among...

Novel Smartphone-Based Measures of Cell Phone Use While Driving in a Sample of Newly Licensed Adolescent Drivers

Jul. 26, 2018

Catherine C. McDonald, Kristen Ward, Yanlan Huang, Douglas J. Wiebe...

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of adolescent death. Cell phone use while driving is a contributor to adolescent motor vehicle crash risk. Objective and directly observable measures of cell phone use while driving are needed to implement interventions aimed at reducing cell phone–related crash risk. 

Aims: To describe novel smartphone-based measures of cell phone use while driving in a sample of newly licensed male and female adolescent drivers. 

Methods: Newly licensed...

The Power of Academic-Practitioner Collaboration to Enhance Science and Practice Integration: Injury and Violence Prevention Case Studies

Jul. 25, 2018

L. Shakiyla Smith, Natalie Wilkins, Stephen W. Marshall, Alan Dellapenna, Joyce C. Pressley, Michael Bauer, Eugenia C. South, Keith Green

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL]

One of the most substantial challenges facing the field of injury and violence prevention is bridging the gap between scientific knowledge and its real-world application to achieve population-level impact. Much synergy is gained when academic and practice communities collaborate; however, a number of barriers prevent better integration of science and practice. This article presents 3 examples of academic-practitioner collaborations, their approaches to working together to address injury and violence issues, and emerging indications of the impact on...

Effect of Process- and Outcome-Based Financial Incentives on Weight Loss Among Prediabetic New York Medicaid Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Jul. 25, 2018

Eric M. VanEpps, Andrea B. Troxel, Elizabeth Villamil,  Kathryn A. Saulsgiver, Jingsan Zhu, Jo-Yu Chin, Jacqueline Matson, Joseph Anarella,  Patrick Roohan, Foster Gesten, Kevin G. Volpp

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL] 

Purpose: To determine whether different financial incentives are effective in promoting weight loss among prediabetic Medicaid recipients.

Design: Four-group, multicenter, randomized clinical trial.

Setting and Participants: Medicaid managed care enrollees residing in New York, aged 18 to 64 years, and diagnosed as prediabetic or high risk for diabetes (N = 703).

Intervention: In a 16-week program, participants were randomly

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Pediatricians' Vaccine Attitudes and Practices Before and After a Major Measles Outbreak

Jul. 25, 2018

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL]

The objective of this study was to describe how a sample of pediatricians were impacted by and responded to the Disneyland measles outbreak in the United States. We conducted three repeated cross-sectional, online surveys in 2014 (before the outbreak), 2015, and 2016 (after the outbreak) among members of three state chapters of the American Academy of Pediatrics. We assessed pediatricians’ level of willingness and length of time comfortable delaying the measles–mumps–rubella (MMR) vaccine before and after the outbreak. Frequency of alternative immunization...

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