Disease Prevention / Health Promotion

Interventions, education and incentives that promote healthy behaviors and improve health outcomes.

HIV and Suicide Risk

Sep. 14, 2020

In recent years, remarkable achievements in HIV testing and antiretroviral therapies have improved the detection, management, and care of persons living with HIV (PLWH). In the 1980s and 90s, patients with HIV infection faced a devastating prognosis. But now, with proper medications and support, PLWH can enjoy long and fulfilling lives. Thus, when the topic of suicide among PLWH is raised, many physicians are surprised. They often ask me, “wasn’t suicide an issue of a time before we had access to antiretroviral therapies?”

Impact Of Hospitalization And Medication Switching On Post-Discharge Adherence To Oral Anticoagulants In Atrial Fibrillation Patients

Allison Willis, MD
Sep. 1, 2020

Thanh Phuong Pham Nguyen, Yong Chen, Dylan Thibault, Charles E. Leonard, Sean Hennessy, Allison Willis

Abstract [from journal

Background: Adherence to chronic medications remains poor in practice. There is limited evidence on how hospitalization affects post-discharge adherence to oral anticoagulants (OACs) in individuals with atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of this study is to examine the impact of hospitalization and medication switching on post-discharge adherence to OACs in the AF population.

Methods: A quasi-experimental pre-post observational study was conducted using United States commercial insurance


A Text Messaging Intervention With Financial Incentive For Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

Aug. 30, 2020

Tara Kaushal, Lorraine E. Levitt Katz, Janet Joseph, Michelle Marowitz, Knashawn H. Morales, Daniel Atkins, Dean Ritter, Reid Simon, Lori Laffel, Terri H. Lipman

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have higher hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) levels than others. In general, adolescents engage with text messaging (TM) and financial incentives, both associated with improved diabetes outcomes. This study aimed to assess the impact of a TM intervention with financial incentives on self-care behaviors and HbA1c.

Methods: A six-month randomized controlled trial compared MyDiaText™, a TM education and support application, with standard care. The sample


Association Of Age, Sex, Race, And Geographic Region With Variation Of The Ratio Of Basal Cell To Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinomas In The United States

Jeremy Etzkorn
Aug. 26, 2020

Tess M. Lukowiak, Leora Aizman, Allison Perz, Christopher J. Miller, Joseph F. Sobanko, Thuzar M. Shin, Cerrene N. Giordano, H. William Higgins 2nd, Jeremy R. Etzkorn

Abstract [from journal]

Importance: Defining which populations are affected by basal cell carcinoma (BCC) vs cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) may inform targeted public health strategies. Incidence of BCC and cSCC is not reported to national cancer registries, but claims data for the treatment of BCC and cSCC provide insights into the epidemiology of keratinocyte carcinoma.

Objective: To define differences in the ratio of BCC to cSCC in adults (age, ≥18 years) in a large database of patients with commercial


COVID-19 Outbreak Among Adolescents At An Inpatient Behavioral Health Hospital

Polina Krass
Aug. 11, 2020

Polina Krass, Charles Zimbrick-Rogers, Chioma Iheagwara, Carol A. Ford, Michele Calderoni

Abstract [from journal]

Purpose: We report on a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak among adolescents at an inpatient behavioral health facility that was identified within 5 weeks of known viral transmission in the surrounding community.

Methods: Clinical records were reviewed for all inpatients aged <18 years with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 between March 23 and April 21, 2020.

Results: A total of 19 COVID-19-positive patients aged 11-17 years were identified. Patients most


In-Person Outreach And Telemedicine In Liver And Intestinal Transplant: A Survey Of National Practices, Impact Of COVID-19 And Areas Of Opportunity

Aug. 9, 2020

Courtney B. Sherman, Adnan Said, Michael Kriss, Vishnu Potluri, Josh Levitsky, Peter P. ReeseJudy A. SheaMarina Serper

Abstract [from journal]

Little is known about national practices and use of in-person outreach clinics and telemedicine in transplantation. We initially aimed to assess contemporary use of in-person outreach and telemedicine in liver and intestinal transplantation in the U.S. We conducted a national survey of liver and intestinal transplant programs to assess use of outreach and telemedicine from January to March of 2019. Given the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we distributed a second survey wave in April 2020 to assess changes in


Impact Of COVID-19 Pandemic On STEMI Care: An Expanded Analysis From The United States

Aug. 7, 2020

Santiago Garcia, Larissa Stanberry, Christian Schmidt, Scott Sharkey, Michael Megaly, Mazen S. Albaghdadi, Perwaiz M. Meraj, Ross Garberich, Farouc A. Jaffer, Ada C. Stefanescu Schmidt, Simon R. Dixon, Jeffrey J. Rade, Timothy Smith, Mark Tannenbaum, Jenny Chambers, Frank Aguirre, Paul P. Huang...

Abstract [from journal]

Objective: To evaluate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic migitation measures on of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) care.

Background: We previously reported a 38% decline in cardiac catheterization activations during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic mitigation measures. This study extends our early observations using a larger sample of STEMI programs representative of different US regions with the inclusion of more contemporary data.

Methods: Data from


Informal and Formal Home Care For Older Adults With Disabilities Increased, 2004-16

Aug. 1, 2020

Courtney H. Van Houtven, R. Tamara Konetzka, Elizabeth Taggert, Norma B. Coe

Abstract [from journal]

Rates of informal home care use among older adults with disabilities increased from 2004 to 2016, such that in 2016 almost three-quarters of these adults received informal home care. Informal care remains the most common source of home care, even though formal home care use grew at almost twice the rate, with a 6-percentage-point increase to 36.9 percent in 2016.

Screening To Identify Signals Of Opioid Drug Interactions Leading To Unintentional Traumatic Injury

Jul. 30, 2020

Charles E. Leonard, Colleen M. Brensinger, Thanh Phuong Pham Nguyen, John R. Horn, Sophie Chung, Warren B. Bilker, Sascha Dublin, Samantha E. Soprano, Ghadeer K. Dawwas, David W. Oslin, Douglas J. Wiebe, Sean Hennessy

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Efforts to minimize harms from opioid drug interactions may be hampered by limited evidence on which drugs, when taken concomitantly with opioids, result in adverse clinical outcomes.

Objective: To identify signals of opioid drug interactions by identifying concomitant medications (precipitant drugs) taken with individual opioids (object drugs) that are associated with unintentional traumatic injury DESIGN: We conducted pharmacoepidemiologic screening of Optum Clinformatics Data


In-Utero Determinants Of Adult Depression: Evidence From The 1918 Flu Pandemic

Jason S. Schnittker, PhD
Jul. 30, 2020

Jason Schnittker

Abstract [from journal]

Social scientists have dealt only glancing with potential in-utero determinants of mental health. This study looks at the enduring consequences of gestational exposure to the 1918 flu pandemic for adult depression. It does so using data collected in the first wave of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1971-1975), corresponding to when those exposed in-utero were in their early to mid-50s. The results indicate very strong effects of in-utero exposure on depression. These effects are only found, however, among men.


There's A Problem With The Problem List: Incongruence Of Patient Problem Information Across The Home Care Admission

Jul. 28, 2020

Paulina S. Sockolow, Kathryn H. Bowles, Natasha B. Le, Sheryl Potashnik, Yushi Yang, Carl Pankok Jr, Claire Champion, Ellen J. Bass

Abstract [from journal]

Objectives: Illustrate patterns of patient problem information received and documented across the home health care (HHC) admission process and offer practice, policy, and health information technology recommendations to improve information transfer.

Design: Observational field study.

Setting and participants: Three diverse HHC agencies using different commercial point-of-care electronic health records (EHRs). Six nurses per agency each admitted 2 patients (36 total).


Reducing Paediatric Overweight And Obesity Through Motivational Interviewing: Study Protocol For A Randomised Controlled Trial In The AAP PROS Research Network

Alexander G. Fiks, MD, MSCE
Jul. 28, 2020

Margaret E. Wright, Emerson Delacroix, Kendrin R. Sonneville, Shannon Considine, Tim Proctor, Jennifer Steffes, Donna Harris, Laura P. Shone, Heide Woo, Roger Vaughan, Robert W. Grundmeier, Alexander G. Fiks, Melissa S. Stockwell, Ken Resnicow

Abstract [from journal]

Introduction: Primary care remains an underused venue for prevention and management of paediatric overweight and obesity. A prior trial demonstrated a significant impact of paediatrician/nurse practitioner (Ped/NP)-and registered dietitian (RD)-delivered motivational interviewing (MI) on child body mass index (BMI). The study described here will test the effectiveness of an enhanced version of this primary care-based MI counselling intervention on child BMI.

Methods and analysis: This cluster