Disparities and Health Equity

The differences in ability to access health care and in health outcomes across the population.

Factors Underlying Racial Disparities in Sepsis Management

Feb. 14, 2019

Matthew DiMeglio, John Dubensky, Samuel Schadt, Rashmika Potdar, and Krzysztof Laudanski

Abstract [from journal]

Sepsis, a syndrome characterized by systemic inflammation during infection, continues to be one of the most common causes of patient mortality in hospitals across the United States. While standardized treatment protocols have been implemented, a wide variability in clinical outcomes persists across racial groups. Specifically, black and Hispanic populations are frequently associated with higher rates of morbidity and mortality in sepsis compared to the white population. While this is often attributed to systemic bias against...

Changes to Racial Disparities in Readmission Rates After Medicare’s Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program Within Safety-Net and Non-Safety-Net Hospitals

Research Brief
Dec. 6, 2018

After the Medicare Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program began enforcing financial penalties, disparities in readmissions between white and black patients widened at safety-net hospitals for conditions not targeted by the program. Disparities were stable for conditions targeted by the program. At non-safety-net hospitals, disparities were unchanged for both targeted and non-targeted conditions.

Racial/Ethnic Disparities in US Pediatric Growth Hormone Treatment

Adda Grimberg, MD
Sep. 13, 2018

Adda Grimberg, Anders Lindberg, Michael Wajnrajch, Andrew J. Cucchiara, Cecilia Camacho-Hübner

Abstract [from journal]

Background/Aims: To compare racial/ethnic proportions of subjects receiving growth hormone (GH) treatment to the expected proportions, and secondarily, to assess racial/ethnic differences in subject characteristics at GH treatment initiation. 

Methods: Race/ethnicity-based expected frequencies of height <–2.25 SD were determined by applying relative risks for short stature, calculated from a regional population of 189,280 pediatric primary care patients, to US census data, and compared to racial/...

Racial Disparities in Nephrology Consultation and Disease Progression among Veterans with CKD: An Observational Cohort Study

Peter P. Reese, MD, MSCE
Aug. 20, 2018

Jonathan Suarez, Jordana B. Cohen, Vishnu Potluri, Wei Yang, David E. Kaplan, Marina Serper, Siddharth P. Shah, ...

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Incident rates of ESRD are much higher among black and Hispanic patients than white patients. Access to nephrology care before progression to ESRD is associated with better clinical outcomes among patients with CKD. However, it is unknown whether black or Hispanic patients with CKD experience lower pre-ESRD nephrology consultation rates compared with their white counterparts,

...

Perceptions of Factors Associated With Inclusive Work and Learning Environments in Health Care Organizations: A Qualitative Narrative Analysis

Jaya Aysola, MD, MPH
Aug. 6, 2018

Jaya Aysola, Frances K. Barg, Ana Bonilla Martinez, Matthew Kearney, ...

Abstract [from journal]

Importance: Diversifying the health care workforce remains a critical goal for health care organizations focused on reducing disparities in care. However, it remains unknown what factors create inclusive health system environments and help organizations retain a diverse workforce.

Objective: To understand from members of the health care workforce what factors contribute to inclusive work and learning environments and what can be done to improve inclusion within health care organizations.

...

Effect of Greening Vacant Land on Mental Health of Community-Dwelling Adults: A Cluster Randomized Trial

Jul. 25, 2018

Eugenia C. South, Bernadette C. Hohl, Michelle C. Kondo, John M. MacDonaldCharles C. Branas

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL]

Importance: Neighborhood physical conditions have been associated with mental illness and may partially explain persistent socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of poor mental health.

Objective: To evaluate whether interventions to green vacant urban land can improve self-reported mental health.

Design, Setting, and Participants:This citywide cluster randomized trial examined 442 community-dwelling sampled adults living in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, within 110 vacant lot clusters...

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