Global Health

The analysis of population health in a global context in order to understand and reduce disparities and protect against global threats such as infectious diseases

Assessing Nurses' Adherence to the See-and-Treat Guidelines of Botswana's National Cervical Cancer Prevention Programme

Dec. 20, 2019

Lauren G. Johnson, Doreen Ramogola-Masire, Anne M. Teitelman, John B. Jemmott, Alison M. Buttenheim

Abstract [from journal]

The see-and-treat approach for cervical cancer screening (VIA followed by immediate cryotherapy) was first pilot tested in Botswana in 2009. Botswana's Ministry of Health and the Botswana-UPenn Partnership collaborated to expand see-and-treat to 5 additional sites throughout the country in 2014. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether nurses' adherence to guideline-based screening was maintained during scale-up. Therefore, we compared nurses' adherence between the pilot and scaled-up sites and determined main drivers of nonadherence...

Effect of Prices, Distribution Strategies, and Marketing on Demand for HIV Self-testing in Zimbabwe: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Aug. 28, 2019

Wei Chang, Primrose Matambanadzo, Albert Takaruza, Karin Hatzold, Frances M. Cowan, Euphemia Sibanda, Harsha Thirumurthy

Abstract [from journal]

Importance: HIV self-testing is a promising approach for increasing awareness of HIV status in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Zimbabwe, where HIV prevalence is 13%. Evidence is lacking, however, on the optimal pricing policies and delivery strategies for maximizing the effect of HIV self-testing.

Objective: To assess demand for HIV self-testing among adults and priority-population subgroups under alternative pricing and distribution strategies.

Design, Setting, and Participants:...

Relative wealth, subjective social status, and their associations with depression: Cross-sectional, population-based study in rural Uganda

Aug. 1, 2019

Meghan L. Smith, Bernard Kakuhikire, Charles Baguma, Justin D. Rasmussen, Jessica M. Perkins, Christine Cooper-Vince, Atheendar S. Venkataramani, Scholastic Ashaba, David R. Bangsberg, Alexander C. Tsai

Abstract [from journal]

Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide, and has been found to be a consistent correlate of socioeconomic status (SES). The relative deprivation hypothesis proposes that one mechanism linking SES to health involves social comparisons, suggesting that relative SES rather than absolute SES is of primary importance in determining health status. Using data from a whole-population sample of 1,620 participants residing in rural southwestern Uganda, we estimated the independent associations between objective and subjective relative wealth and


HIV Testing and Treatment with the Use of a Community Health Approach in Rural Africa

Jul. 18, 2019

Diane V. Havlir, Laura B. Balzer, Edwin D. Charlebois, Harsha Thirumurthy, et al. 

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) with annual population testing and a multidisease, patient-centered strategy could reduce new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and improve community health.

Methods: We randomly assigned 32 rural communities in Uganda and Kenya to baseline HIV and multidisease testing and national guideline-restricted ART (control group) or to baseline testing plus annual testing, eligibility for universal ART, and patient-centered care (intervention group). The


The Impact of AIDS Treatment on Savings and Human Capital Investment in Malawi

Feb. 21, 2018

Victoria Baranov and Hans-Peter Kohler

In American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, Hans-Peter Kohler and Victoria Baranov study the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART), a treatment for AIDS, on savings and human capital investment in Malawi. In particular, they use spatial and temporal differences in ART availability to evaluate the impact of ART provision on cash savings, education expenditures, and children’s schooling.

The authors find that ART availability increases savings, expenditures on education, and children’s schooling significantly, even amongst those who are HIV-negative and thus, do not...

Cost-effectiveness of maternal GBS immunization in low-income sub-Saharan Africa

Dec. 14, 2017

Louise B.Russell, Sun-Young Kim, Ben Cosgriff, Sri Ram Pentakota, Stephanie J.Schrag, Ajoke Sobanjo-ter Meulen, Jennifer R.Verani, Anushua Sinha

Abstract [from journal] 

Background: A maternal group B streptococcal (GBS) vaccine could prevent neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Its cost-effectiveness in low-income sub-Saharan Africa, a high burden region, is unknown.

Methods: We used a decision tree model, with Markov nodes to project infants’ lifetimes, to compare maternal immunization delivered through routine antenatal care with no immunization. 37 countries were clustered on the basis of economic and health resources and past


Nursing skill mix in European hospitals: cross-sectional study of the association with mortality, patient ratings, and quality of care

Jul. 10, 2017

Linda H. Aiken, Douglas Sloane, Peter Griffiths, Anne Marie Rafferty, Luk Bruyneel, Matthew McHugh, Claudia B. Maier, Teresa Moreno-Casbas, Jane E. Ball, Dietmar Ausserhofer, Walter Sermeus

In BMJ Quality & Safety, Linda Aiken and colleagues, including Matthew McHugh examine the association of hospital nursing skill mix with patient mortality, patient ratings of care, and indicators of quality care among European hospitals. As policymakers around the world seek to reduce health spending, a popular target in Europe has been to transition from more professional nurses to fewer high-cost nurses supported by more lower-wage assistants. The authors analyzed how nursing skill mix affects indicators of quality patient care. The authors utilized cross-sectional patient...

An Assessment of Global Oral Health Education in U.S Dental Schools

Jul. 5, 2017

Janet Sung and Joan I. Gluch

In Journal of Dental Education, Janet Sung and Joan Gluch assess how global health education is currently incorporated into pre-doctoral dental training in the U.S.  In 2015-2016, the authors surveyed 64 accredited U.S dental schools regarding their global health education and competencies, and received responses from 52 of those schools. Most dental school curricula covered social determinants of oral diseases and conditions, how to identify barriers to use of oral health services, and how to work with patients who have limited dental health literacy. But other key areas of...