Global Health

The analysis of population health in a global context in order to understand and reduce disparities and protect against global threats such as infectious diseases

Evaluating The Impact Of Oncology Care Model Reporting Requirements On Biomarker Testing And Treatment

Jun. 4, 2020

Emily H Castellanos, Abigail Orlando, Xinran Ma, Ravi B Parikh, Gillian O'Connell, Neal J Meropol, James Hamrick, Blythe J S Adamson

Abstract [from journal]

Purpose: The Oncology Care Model (OCM) is Medicare's first alternative payment model program for patients with cancer. As of October 2017, participating practices were required to report biomarker testing of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (aNSCLC). Our objective was to evaluate the effect of this OCM reporting requirement on quality of care.

Methods: We selected patients with aNSCLC receiving care in practices in a nationwide de-identified electronic health record-derived


Maximum Daily Temperature, Precipitation, Ultra-Violet Light And Rates Of Transmission Of SARS-Cov-2 In The United States

Douglas Wiebe, PhD, University of Pennsylvania
May. 30, 2020

Shiv T. Sehra, Justin D. Salciccioli, Douglas J. Wiebe, Shelby Fundin, Joshua F. Baker

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Previous reports have suggested that transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is reduced by higher temperatures and higher humidity. We analyzed case-data from the United States to investigate effects of temperature, precipitation, and UV Light on community transmission of SARS-CoV-2.

Methods: Daily reported cases of SARS-CoV-2 across the United States from 01/22/2020 to 04/03/2020 were analyzed. We used negative binomial regression modelling to investigate whether daily maximum temperature,


A Global Survey On The Impact Of COVID-19 On Urological Services

May. 26, 2020

Jeremy Yuen-Chun Teoh, William Lay Keat Ong, Daniel Gonzalez-Padilla, Daniele Castellani, Justin M Dubin, Francesco Esperto, Riccardo Campi, Kalyan Gudaru, Ruchika Talwar, Zhamshid Okhunov, Chi-Fai Ng, Nitesh Jain, Vineet Gauhar, Martin Chi-Sang Wong, Marcelo Langer Wroclawski, ...

Abstract [from journal]

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) declared coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) as a pandemic on March 11, 2020. The impact of COVID-19 on urological services in different geographical areas is unknown.

Objective: To investigate the global impact of COVID-19 on urological providers and the provision of urological patient care.

Design, setting, and participants: A cross-sectional, web-based survey was conducted from March 30, 2020 to April 7, 2020. A 55-item


The Viral Infection And Respiratory Illness Universal Study (VIRUS): An International Registry Of Coronavirus 2019-Related Critical Illness

Apr. 29, 2020

Allan J Walkey, Vishakha K Kumar, Michael O Harhay, Scott Bolesta, Vikas Bansal, Ognjen Gajic, Rahul Kashyap

Abstract [from journal]

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has disproportionally strained intensive care services worldwide. Large areas of uncertainly regarding epidemiology, physiology, practice patterns, and resource demands for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 require rapid collection and dissemination of data. We describe the conception and implementation of an intensive care database rapidly developed and designed to meet data analytic needs in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic-the multicenter, international Society of Critical Care...

Survey-based Work System Assessment To Facilitate Large-scale Dissemination Of Healthcare Quality Improvement Programs

Apr. 9, 2020

Anping Xie, Danielle W Koontz, Annie Voskertchian, James C Fackler, Aaron M Milstone, Charlotte Z Woods-Hill

Abstract [from journal]

Introduction: The dissemination of quality improvement (QI) interventions to a broader range of healthcare settings requires a proactive assessment of local work systems and processes. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using a survey-based work system assessment (WSA) tool to facilitate the dissemination of a program for optimizing blood culture (BC) use.

Methods: Informed by findings from an onsite, interview-based WSA at 2 hospitals, a 50-item WSA survey was devised and...

Assessing Nurses' Adherence to the See-and-Treat Guidelines of Botswana's National Cervical Cancer Prevention Programme

Dec. 20, 2019

Lauren G. Johnson, Doreen Ramogola-Masire, Anne M. Teitelman, John B. Jemmott, Alison M. Buttenheim

Abstract [from journal]

The see-and-treat approach for cervical cancer screening (VIA followed by immediate cryotherapy) was first pilot tested in Botswana in 2009. Botswana's Ministry of Health and the Botswana-UPenn Partnership collaborated to expand see-and-treat to 5 additional sites throughout the country in 2014. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether nurses' adherence to guideline-based screening was maintained during scale-up. Therefore, we compared nurses' adherence between the pilot and scaled-up sites and determined main drivers of nonadherence...

Effect of Prices, Distribution Strategies, and Marketing on Demand for HIV Self-testing in Zimbabwe: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Aug. 28, 2019

Wei Chang, Primrose Matambanadzo, Albert Takaruza, Karin Hatzold, Frances M. Cowan, Euphemia Sibanda, Harsha Thirumurthy

Abstract [from journal]

Importance: HIV self-testing is a promising approach for increasing awareness of HIV status in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Zimbabwe, where HIV prevalence is 13%. Evidence is lacking, however, on the optimal pricing policies and delivery strategies for maximizing the effect of HIV self-testing.

Objective: To assess demand for HIV self-testing among adults and priority-population subgroups under alternative pricing and distribution strategies.

Design, Setting, and Participants:...

Relative wealth, subjective social status, and their associations with depression: Cross-sectional, population-based study in rural Uganda

Aug. 1, 2019

Meghan L. Smith, Bernard Kakuhikire, Charles Baguma, Justin D. Rasmussen, Jessica M. Perkins, Christine Cooper-Vince, Atheendar S. Venkataramani, Scholastic Ashaba, David R. Bangsberg, Alexander C. Tsai

Abstract [from journal]

Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide, and has been found to be a consistent correlate of socioeconomic status (SES). The relative deprivation hypothesis proposes that one mechanism linking SES to health involves social comparisons, suggesting that relative SES rather than absolute SES is of primary importance in determining health status. Using data from a whole-population sample of 1,620 participants residing in rural southwestern Uganda, we estimated the independent associations between objective and subjective relative wealth and


HIV Testing and Treatment with the Use of a Community Health Approach in Rural Africa

Jul. 18, 2019

Diane V. Havlir, Laura B. Balzer, Edwin D. Charlebois, Harsha Thirumurthy, et al. 

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) with annual population testing and a multidisease, patient-centered strategy could reduce new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and improve community health.

Methods: We randomly assigned 32 rural communities in Uganda and Kenya to baseline HIV and multidisease testing and national guideline-restricted ART (control group) or to baseline testing plus annual testing, eligibility for universal ART, and patient-centered care (intervention group). The


The Impact of AIDS Treatment on Savings and Human Capital Investment in Malawi

Feb. 21, 2018

Victoria Baranov and Hans-Peter Kohler

In American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, Hans-Peter Kohler and Victoria Baranov study the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART), a treatment for AIDS, on savings and human capital investment in Malawi. In particular, they use spatial and temporal differences in ART availability to evaluate the impact of ART provision on cash savings, education expenditures, and children’s schooling.

The authors find that ART availability increases savings, expenditures on education, and children’s schooling significantly, even amongst those who are HIV-negative and thus, do not...