Global Health

The analysis of population health in a global context in order to understand and reduce disparities and protect against global threats such as infectious diseases

COVID-19 Pandemic Significantly Decreases Acute Surgical Complaints

Aug. 29, 2020

John S. Riley, Valerie L. Luks, Luis Filipe de Pina, Ziad Al Adas, Jordan B. Stoecker, Benjamin M. Jackson, Benjamin M. Braslow, Daniel N. Holena

Abstract [from journal]

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic significantly reduced elective surgery in the United States, but the impact of COVID-19 on acute surgical complaints and acute care surgery is unknown.

Study design: A retrospective review was performed of all surgical consults at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania in the 30 days prior to and 30 days following confirmation of the first COVID-19 patient at the institution. Consults to all divisions within general surgery

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Psychological Reactance Is A Novel Risk Factor For Adolescent Antiretroviral Treatment Failure

Robert Gross, MD, MSCE
Aug. 4, 2020

Elizabeth Lowenthal, Mitchelle Matesva, Tafireyi Marukutira, One Bayani, Jennifer Chapman, Ontibile Tshume, Mogomotsi Matshaba, Meredith Hickson, Robert Gross

Abstract [from journal]

Psychological reactance is an aversive response to perceived threats against personal agency. For adolescents receiving HIV treatment in Botswana, we utilized a two-question, medication-specific reactance tool to assess whether: (1) verbal reminders to take medicines made adolescents want to avoid taking them, and, (2) whether adolescents felt anger when reminded to take medicines. Reactant adolescents had 2.05-fold (95% CI 1.23, 3.41) greater odds of treatment failure than non-reactant adolescents (p = 0.03). Adjusted risk of

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The Psychological Benefits Of Marriage And Children In Rural Malawi

Iliana Kohler
Jul. 27, 2020

Shelley Clark, Cassandra Cotton, Rachel Margolis, Hans-Peter Kohler

Abstract [from journal]

Despite an extensive literature on the psychological rewards of marriage and children in high-income countries, research on these relationships in low-income countries remains limited. This paper draws on data from 4,133 adult women and men interviewed in the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health to examine how marital status, categorized as never, formerly, monogamously, and polygynously married, and number of children are associated with psychological well-being. With respect to marital status, we find that women in

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Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Kenyan Adolescent Girls and Young Women With Limited Sexual Experience

Tiffany Yuh
Jul. 14, 2020

Tiffany Yuh, Murugi Micheni, Stacy Selke, Lynda Oluoch, Catherine Kiptinness, Amalia Magaret, Bhavna Chohan, Kenneth Ngure, Anna Wald, Nelly R. Mugo,  Alison C. Roxby

Abstract [from journal] 

Objectives: Globally, the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are among the 15-24 age group. Studying adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) pre-sexual debut could identify risk factors for STI acquisition.

Methods: We recruited a prospective cohort of low-risk AGYW aged 16-20 in Kenya. Participants were HIV and HSV-2 seronegative and reported no history of sexual intercourse or reported sex with one partner. Participants underwent genital exams, nucleic acid testing of vaginal swabs for ...

Perioperative Point-of-Care Ultrasound And Transesophageal Echocardiography In Resource- Limited Settings-A Focus On Nepal And Bangladesh

Jul. 11, 2020

Jesse Raiten, Nahreen Ahmed, Ashish Amyata, Apurb Sharma, Subhash Acharya, Jill Lanahan, Hazel Werlhof, Hanjo Annie Ko, Cindy Tsui, Tariq Reza, Smriti Bajracharya, Ove Hagen, Gentle Shrestha

Abstract [from journal]

The use of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in the perioperative and critical care setting is increasing worldwide. This increase has been driven by increasing educational opportunities and technologic advances. Nepal and Bangladesh are resource-limited countries where concerted efforts have been made to increase training in POCUS or TEE in the perioperative and critical care settings. This paper's focus is to present the current state of use and international efforts to improve education and

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Assessing The Effects Of Maternal HIV Infection On Pregnancy Outcomes Using Cross-Sectional Data In Malawi

Dylan S. Small, PhD
Jun. 22, 2020

Halima S. Twabi, Samuel O. Manda, Dylan S. Small

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Several studies have shown that maternal HIV infection is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as low birth weight and perinatal mortality. However, the association is conflicted with the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the pregnancy outcomes and it remains unexamined. If the association is confirmed then it would guide policy makers towards more effective prevention of mother to child HIV transmission interventions. Using methods for matching possible confounders, the objectives of

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Practices And Perspectives Of Traditional Bone Setters In Northern Tanzania

Neil Sheth, MD
Jun. 16, 2020

Elizabeth B. Card, Joy E. Obayemi, Octavian Shirima, Matayo Lazaro, Honest Massawe, John W. Stanifer, Ajay Premkumar, Neil P. Sheth

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Traditional health practitioners remain a critical source of care in Tanzania, more than 50% of Tanzanians frequently using their services. With a severe shortage of orthopaedic surgeons (1:3.3 million Tanzanians) traditional bone setters (TBSs) could potentially expand access to musculoskeletal care and improve outcomes for morbidity as a result of trauma.

Objective: We sought to identify the advantages and disadvantages of traditional bone setting in Tanzania and to assess

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Evaluating The Impact Of Oncology Care Model Reporting Requirements On Biomarker Testing And Treatment

Jun. 4, 2020

Emily H Castellanos, Abigail Orlando, Xinran Ma, Ravi B Parikh, Gillian O'Connell, Neal J Meropol, James Hamrick, Blythe J S Adamson

Abstract [from journal]

Purpose: The Oncology Care Model (OCM) is Medicare's first alternative payment model program for patients with cancer. As of October 2017, participating practices were required to report biomarker testing of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (aNSCLC). Our objective was to evaluate the effect of this OCM reporting requirement on quality of care.

Methods: We selected patients with aNSCLC receiving care in practices in a nationwide de-identified electronic health record-derived

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Maximum Daily Temperature, Precipitation, Ultra-Violet Light And Rates Of Transmission Of SARS-Cov-2 In The United States

May. 30, 2020

Shiv T. Sehra, Justin D. Salciccioli, Douglas J. Wiebe, Shelby Fundin, Joshua F. Baker

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Previous reports have suggested that transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is reduced by higher temperatures and higher humidity. We analyzed case-data from the United States to investigate effects of temperature, precipitation, and UV Light on community transmission of SARS-CoV-2.

Methods: Daily reported cases of SARS-CoV-2 across the United States from 01/22/2020 to 04/03/2020 were analyzed. We used negative binomial regression modelling to investigate whether daily maximum

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Maximum Daily Temperature, Precipitation, Ultra-Violet Light And Rates Of Transmission Of SARS-Cov-2 In The United States

Douglas Wiebe, PhD, University of Pennsylvania
May. 30, 2020

Shiv T. Sehra, Justin D. Salciccioli, Douglas J. Wiebe, Shelby Fundin, Joshua F. Baker

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Previous reports have suggested that transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is reduced by higher temperatures and higher humidity. We analyzed case-data from the United States to investigate effects of temperature, precipitation, and UV Light on community transmission of SARS-CoV-2.

Methods: Daily reported cases of SARS-CoV-2 across the United States from 01/22/2020 to 04/03/2020 were analyzed. We used negative binomial regression modelling to investigate whether daily maximum temperature,

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A Global Survey On The Impact Of COVID-19 On Urological Services

May. 26, 2020

Jeremy Yuen-Chun Teoh, William Lay Keat Ong, Daniel Gonzalez-Padilla, Daniele Castellani, Justin M Dubin, Francesco Esperto, Riccardo Campi, Kalyan Gudaru, Ruchika Talwar, Zhamshid Okhunov, Chi-Fai Ng, Nitesh Jain, Vineet Gauhar, Martin Chi-Sang Wong, Marcelo Langer Wroclawski, ...

Abstract [from journal]

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) declared coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) as a pandemic on March 11, 2020. The impact of COVID-19 on urological services in different geographical areas is unknown.

Objective: To investigate the global impact of COVID-19 on urological providers and the provision of urological patient care.

Design, setting, and participants: A cross-sectional, web-based survey was conducted from March 30, 2020 to April 7, 2020. A 55-item

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ED Visits And Readmissions After Follow-up For Mental Health Hospitalization

Stephanie Doupnik, MD
May. 13, 2020

Naomi S. Bardach, Stephanie K. Doupnik, Jonathan Rodean, Bonnie T. Zima, James C. Gay, Carol Nash, Yasas Tanguturi, Tumaini R. Coker

Abstract [from journal]

Objectives: A national quality measure in the Child Core Set is used to assess whether pediatric patients hospitalized for a mental illness receive timely follow-up care. In this study, we examine the relationship between adherence to the quality measure and repeat use of the emergency department (ED) or repeat hospitalization for a primary mental health condition.

Methods: We used the Truven MarketScan Medicaid Database 2015-2016, identifying hospitalizations with a primary diagnosis of depression, bipolar disorder...

The Viral Infection And Respiratory Illness Universal Study (VIRUS): An International Registry Of Coronavirus 2019-Related Critical Illness

Apr. 29, 2020

Allan J Walkey, Vishakha K Kumar, Michael O Harhay, Scott Bolesta, Vikas Bansal, Ognjen Gajic, Rahul Kashyap

Abstract [from journal]

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has disproportionally strained intensive care services worldwide. Large areas of uncertainly regarding epidemiology, physiology, practice patterns, and resource demands for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 require rapid collection and dissemination of data. We describe the conception and implementation of an intensive care database rapidly developed and designed to meet data analytic needs in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic-the multicenter, international Society of Critical Care...

Survey-based Work System Assessment To Facilitate Large-scale Dissemination Of Healthcare Quality Improvement Programs

Apr. 9, 2020

Anping Xie, Danielle W Koontz, Annie Voskertchian, James C Fackler, Aaron M Milstone, Charlotte Z Woods-Hill

Abstract [from journal]

Introduction: The dissemination of quality improvement (QI) interventions to a broader range of healthcare settings requires a proactive assessment of local work systems and processes. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using a survey-based work system assessment (WSA) tool to facilitate the dissemination of a program for optimizing blood culture (BC) use.

Methods: Informed by findings from an onsite, interview-based WSA at 2 hospitals, a 50-item WSA survey was devised and...

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