Health Behavior & Communication

Incentives and communication strategies that influence behaviors affecting health. LDI Senior Fellows study financial and non-financial incentives that promote healthy behaviors, and how individuals and communities receive and exchange health information.

Experiences With Medical Exemptions After a Change in Vaccine Exemption Policy in California

Nov. 6, 2018

Salini MohantyAlison M. Buttenheim, Caroline M. Joyce, Amanda C. Howa, Daniel Salmon, Saad B. Omer

Abstract [from journal]

Video Abstract

Objectives: In 2015, California passed Senate Bill 227 (SB277), eliminating nonmedical vaccine exemptions for school entry. Our objective for this study was to describe the experiences of health officers and immunization staff addressing medical exemption requests under SB277.

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A Randomized Trial of Yoga for Stress and Substance Use among People Living With HIV in Reentry

Sep. 27, 2018

Alexandra S. Wimberly, Malitta Engstrom, Molly Layde, James R. McKay

Abstract [from journal]

Background: People in reentry from prison or jail (returning citizens) living with HIV and substance use problems often experience numerous stressors and are at high risk for resumed substance use. Interventions are needed to manage stress as a pathway to reduced substance use.

Objective: This study explored the effect of a hatha yoga intervention as compared to treatment as usual on stress and substance use among returning citizens living with HIV and substance use problems.

Methods:...

Adolescent E-Cigarette, Hookah, and Conventional Cigarette Use and Subsequent Marijuana Use

Janet Audrain McGovern, PhD
Sep. 12, 2018

Janet Audrain-McGovern, Matthew D. Stone, Jessica Barrington-Trimis, Jennifer B. Unger, Adam M. Leventhal

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL]

Objectives: Noncigarette tobacco products may confer a risk of marijuana use similar to combustible cigarettes. We examined whether adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette), hookah, or combustible cigarette use is associated with initiating and currently using marijuana as well as using both tobacco and marijuana concurrently.

Methods: Adolescents from 10 public schools in Los Angeles, California, completed in-classroom surveys at baseline (fall 2013,

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Using Behavioral Economics to Encourage Parent Behavior Change: Opportunities to Improve Clinical Effectiveness

Sep. 10, 2018

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL]

Pediatric clinical practice often involves improving child health by changing parents' behavior. Strategies from behavioral economics - a field that leverages predictable patterns in human decision-making to overcome barriers to behavior change - can improve health outcomes in adults. Though more research is needed, the application of these approaches to parent behavior change in pediatric settings has the potential to improve the clinical effectiveness of child healthcare. We review the foundational concepts of behavioral economics and identify the unique...

Patient and Physician Predictors of Hyperlipidemia Screening and Statin Prescription

Aug. 23, 2018

Sneha Kannan, David A. Asch, Gregory W. Kurtzman, Steve Honeywell Jr, Susan C. Day, and Mitesh S. Patel

ABSTRACT [from journal]

Objectives: Appropriate lipid management has been demonstrated to reduce cardiovascular events, but rates of hyperlipidemia screening and statin therapy are suboptimal. We aimed to evaluate patient and physician predictors of guideline-concordant hyperlipidemia screening and statin prescription.

Study Design: Retrospective study of patients with primary care provider (PCP) visits from 2014 to 2016 at the University of Pennsylvania Health System.

Methods: Data on patients, screening orders, and...

Effect of a Behavioral Intervention on Perpetrating and Experiencing Forced Sex Among South African Adolescents: A Secondary Analysis of a Cluster Randomized Trial

Aug. 17, 2018

John Barton Jemmott III, Loretta Sweet Jemmott, Ann O’Leary, Zolani Philemon Ngwane, Anne Marie Teitelman, Monde Blessing Makiwane, Scarlett L. Bellamy

Abstract [from journal]

Importance: Scant research has investigated interventions to reduce forced sexual intercourse among adolescents. The need for such interventions is especially great in South Africa, which has some of the highest rates of sexual assault in the world.

Objectives: To determine whether an HIV/sexually transmitted disease risk-reduction intervention that reduced sexual risk behavior and sexually transmitted disease prevalence also reduced the perpetration and experience of forced sex among...

Improving Opioid Stewardship for Acute Pain

Aug. 9, 2018

As the country faces an unprecedented opioid epidemic, there’s an active national conversation about how inappropriate prescribing contributes to chronic opioid use, misuse, and addiction. Evidence is rapidly evolving to inform the policy debate, especially regarding best practices for prescribing in acutely painful conditions, like an injury or surgery, but the evidence is less clear on the best policy solutions.

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