Risk Communication

The exchange of information about the probability and consequences of adverse events, and how these risks are perceived and managed.

Universal Background Checks For Handgun Purchases Can Reduce Homicide Rates Of African Americans

Elinore Kaufman, U of Penn
Jun. 1, 2020

Elinore J. Kaufman, Christopher N. Morrison, Erik J. Olson, David K. Humphreys, Douglas J. Wiebe, Niels D. Martin, Carrie A. Sims, Mark H. Hoofnagle, C. William Schwab, Patrick M. Reilly, Mark J. Seamon

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Federal law requires background checks for firearms purchased from licensed dealers, but states can extend requirements to private sales of handguns and purchases at gun shows (universal background checks for handguns [UBC-HG]). Although firearm homicide disproportionately affects African Americans, little is known about how UBG-HG impacts African Americans. We hypothesized that implementation of UBC-HG would reduce rates of firearm homicide of African Americans.

Methods: We

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Are Sexual Minority Stressors Associated With Young Men Who Have Sex With Men's (YMSM) Level Of Engagement In PrEP?

José Bauermeister
May. 13, 2020

Steven Meanley, Cristian Chandler, Jessica Jaiswal, Dalmacio D. Flores, Robin Stevens, Daniel Connochie, José A Bauermeister

Abstract [from journal]

Sexual minority stressors (community homophobia, sexuality-related discrimination, and internalized homonegativity) are negatively associated with accessing HIV prevention services among men who have sex with men (MSM). Few studies have tested minority stressors' associations with PrEP engagement among high-HIV risk young MSM (YMSM). Therefore, we assessed the associations between PrEP-indicated YMSM's progression along the PrEP continuum and their experiences of minority stress. N = 229 YMSM completed a web-survey on PrEP-related behaviors and minority...

Utilization of Medications With Cognitive Impairment Side Effects and the Implications for Older Adults' Cognitive Function

Jason S. Schnittker, PhD
Jan. 6, 2020

Duy Do, Jason Schnittker

Abstract [from journal]

Objectives: Many medications have cognitive impairment, memory loss, amnesia, or dementia as side effects ("cognitive side effects" hereafter), but little is known about trends in the prevalence of these medications or their implications for population-level cognitive impairment. 

Method: We use data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2016) to describe trends in the use of medications with cognitive side effects among adults aged 60+ (N = 16,937) and their implications for cognitive

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Healing is Not Linear: Using Photography to Describe the Day-to-Day Healing Journeys of Undergraduate Women Survivors of Sexual Violence

Dec. 3, 2019

Laura Sinko, Michelle Munro‐Kramer, Terri Conley, Courtney J. Burns, Denise M. Saint Arnault

Abstract [from journal]

The purpose of this study was to describe the day-to-day healing processes of women who experienced undergraduate sexual violence. We engaged 19 women in a photo-elicitation experience with follow-up individual interviews to identify themes of both healing and darker moments in survivors' everyday lives. Healing was found to function on a continuum influenced by darker moments (i.e., moments that elicited fear, anxiety, loneliness, guilt, anger, and worthlessness) and healing moments (i.e., rebuilding moments of self-care, self-love, connection, hope

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Estimating the Effect of Calorie Menu Labeling on Calories Purchased in a Large Restaurant Franchise in the Southern United States: Quasi-Experimental Study

Oct. 30, 2019

Joshua Petimar, Fang Zhang, Lauren Cleveland, Denise Simon, Steven Gortmaker, Michele Polacsek, Sara Bleich, Eric Rimm, Christina Roberto, Jason Block

Abstract [from journal]

Objective: To evaluate whether calorie labeling of menus in large restaurant chains was associated with a change in mean calories purchased per transaction.

Design: Quasi-experimental longitudinal study.

Setting: Large franchise of a national fast food company with three different restaurant chains located in the southern United States (Louisiana, Texas, and Mississippi) from April 2015 until April 2018.

Participants: 104 restaurants with calorie information added

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The Relationship Between Exogenous Exposure to "The Real Cost" Anti-smoking Campaign and Campaign-Targeted Beliefs

Robert C. Hornik, PhD
Sep. 26, 2019

Elissa C. Kranzler, Robert C. Hornik

Abstract [from journal]

Though previous evaluations of "The Real Cost" anti-smoking campaign demonstrate effects on anti-smoking beliefs and behaviors, results rely on self-reported recall as a measure of exposure and are thus open to reverse causation concerns. Exogenous measures of exposure, assessed independently of outcomes, support stronger causal inferences. In this study, we examined the relationship between Target Rating Points (TRPs) for specific ads available over four-week periods and anti-smoking beliefs in a national sample of adolescent nonsmokers and

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Working Memory Development and Motor Vehicle Crashes in Young Drivers

Flaura K. Winston, MD, PhD
Sep. 13, 2019

Elizabeth A. Walshe, Flaura K. Winston, Laura M. Betancourt, Atika Khurana, Kristin Arena, Daniel Romer

Abstract

Importance: Adolescent drivers have the highest rate of motor vehicle crashes, and among equally novice drivers, crash risk is inversely age graded. Working memory (WM), crucial to driving hazard awareness, is also age graded, with ongoing development into late adolescence. Variability in WM capacity and growth trajectory positions WM as a candidate crash risk factor for study, clinical screening, and possible preventative intervention.

Objective: To test the association between crashes and differential WM development...

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