Risk Communication

The exchange of information about the probability and consequences of adverse events, and how these risks are perceived and managed.

Better Nurse Staffing is Associated With Survival for Black Patients and Diminishes Racial Disparities in Survival After In-Hospital Cardiac Arrests

Nov. 16, 2020

Margo Brooks CarthonHeather BromMatthew McHugh, Douglas M. Sloane, Robert Berg, Raina Merchant, Saket Girotra, Linda H. Aiken

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Racial disparities in survival among patients who had an in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) have been linked to hospital-level factors.

Objectives: To determine whether nurse staffing is associated with survival disparities after IHCA.

Research design: Cross-sectional data from (1) the American Heart Association's Get With the Guidelines-Resuscitation database; (2) the University of Pennsylvania Multi-State Nursing Care and Patient Safety

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Predictors of Mental Health During the COVID-19 Pandemic in the U.S.: Role Of Economic Concerns, Health Worries and Social Distancing

Nov. 11, 2020

Fabrice Kämpfen, Iliana V. Kohler, Alberto Ciancio, Wändi Bruine de Bruin, Jürgen Maurer, Hans-Peter Kohler

Abstract [from journal]

Despite the profound health and economic implications of Covid-19, there is only limited knowledge to date about the role of economic concerns, health worries and social distancing for mental health outcomes during the pandemic. We analyze online survey data from the nationally representative "Understanding America Study" (UAS) covering the period of March 10-31st 2020 (sample size: 6,585). Mental health is assessed by the validated PHQ-4 instrument for measuring symptoms of depression and anxiety. About 29% (CI:

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Opioid Prescription For Pain After Osmotic Dilator Placement In Abortion Care: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Nov. 5, 2020

Divyah NagendraSarita Sonalkar, Danielle Schurr, Arden McAllister, Andrea Hsu Roe, Jade M. Shorter, Mary D. Sammel, Courtney A. Schreiber

Abstract [from journal]

Objective: To compare the overnight maximum pain scores after osmotic dilator placement prior to a dilation and evacuation (D&E) procedure in participants assigned to a prescription for ibuprofen alone or to ibuprofen plus oxycodone.

Study design: We conducted a non-blinded pragmatic, randomized controlled trial to evaluate pain management among women undergoing osmotic dilator placement prior to D&E. We randomly assigned 70 participants at 12 weeks 6 days to 23 weeks 6 days gestation

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Training Young Adult Peers In A Mobile Motivational Interviewing-Based Mentoring Approach To Upstream HIV Prevention

Nov. 2, 2020

Erin E. Bonar, James R. Wolfe, Ryan Drab, Rob Stephenson, Patrick S. Sullivan, Tanaka Chavanduka, Benyam Hailu, Jodie L. Guest, José Bauermeister

Abstract [from journal]

Mentoring relationships are characterized by a sustained, high quality, and skill-building relationship between a protégé and mentor (Handbook of Youth Mentoring, Los Angeles, SAGE, 2014). Within prevention science, youth mentoring programs emphasize creating a specific context that benefits a young person. Program-sponsored relationships between youth and adults allow for creating a mentor-mentee partnership, but do not require the establishment of a strong bond in order to deliver prevention-focused activities and experiences (

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The Gears Of Knowledge Translation: Process Evaluation Of The Dissemination And Implementation Of A Patient Engagement Toolkit

Oct. 26, 2020

Shimrit Keddem, Aneeza Z. Agha, Judith A. Long, Becky Shasha, Leslie R. M. Hausmann, Judy A. Shea

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Patient engagement is a key tenet of patient-centered care and is associated with many positive health outcomes. To improve resources for patient engagement, we created a web-based, interactive patient engagement toolkit to improve patient engagement in primary care across the Veterans Health Administration (VHA).

Objective: To use the knowledge translation (KT) framework to evaluate the dissemination and implementation of a patient engagement toolkit at facilities across one

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Firearm Homicide Incidence, Within-state Firearm Laws, and Interstate Firearm Laws in US Counties

Oct. 19, 2020

Christopher N. Morrison, Elinore J. Kaufman, David K. Humphreys, Douglas J. Wiebe

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Firearm homicides occur less frequently in US states with more firearm control laws. However, firearms are easily transported across state lines, and laws in one location may affect firearm violence in another. This study examined associations between within-state firearm laws and firearm homicide while accounting for interference from laws in other nearby states.

Methods: The units of analysis were 3,107 counties in the 48 contiguous US states, arrayed in 15 yearly panels for 2000

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Making The News: Victim Characteristics Associated With Media Reporting On Firearm Injury

Elinore Kaufman, U of Penn
Oct. 4, 2020

Elinore J. Kaufman, Jesse E. Passman, Sara F. JacobyDaniel N. Holena, Mark J. Seamon, Jim MacMillan, Jessica H. Beard

Abstract [from journal]

Firearm injury is a public health crisis in the United States. Selective media coverage may contribute to incomplete public understanding of firearm injury. To better understand how firearm injury is communicated to the public, we analyzed media coverage of intentional, interpersonal shootings in 3 U.S. cities. We hypothesized that multiple shootings and fatal shootings would be more likely to make the news, as would shootings affecting children, women, and white individuals. We compared police department data on shootings to media

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The Youth Firearm Risk And Safety Tool (Youth-First): Psychometrics And Validation Of A Gun Attitudes And Violence Exposure Assessment Tool

Oct. 1, 2020

Cheryl Beseler, Kimberly J. Mitchell, Lisa M. Jones, Heather A. Turner, Sherry Hamby, Roy Wade Jr.

Abstract [from journal]

This study reports on the development of a comprehensive assessment of exposure to guns and gun-related violence for evaluating the risk of gun-related trauma. Gun access, gun attitudes, gun safety education, and exposure to gun violence were measured. Participants were 630 youth, aged 2-17. Youth, ages 10-17, completed a self-report survey and caregivers of young children, ages 2-9, completed the survey as a proxy for that child. The youth were from urban (n = 286) and rural (n = 344) areas. Factor analysis, item response theory,

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Pulmonary Complications In Trauma: Another Bellwether For Failure To Rescue?

Sep. 19, 2020

Dane Scantling, Justin Hatchimonji, Elinore Kaufman, Ruiying Xiong, Wei Yang, Daniel N. Holena

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Pulmonary complications are the most common adverse event after injury and second greatest cause of failure to rescue (death after pulmonary complications). It is not known whether readily accessible trauma center data can be used to stratify center-level performance for various complications. Performance variation between trauma centers would allow sharing of best practices among otherwise similar hospitals. We hypothesized that high-, average-, and low-performing centers for pulmonary complication and

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Gaps in the Use of Long-Acting Opioids Within Intervals of Consecutive Days Among Cancer Outpatients Using Electronic Pill Caps

Salima Meghani, RN, PhD, Penn Nursing School researcher
Sep. 16, 2020

Salimah H. Meghani, Amelia L. Persico, Jeffrey Fudin, George J. Knafl

Abstract [from journal]

Objective: This study describes individual cancer patients’ nonuse of extended-release or long-acting (ER/LA) opioids, including periods of gap between opioid doses taken.

Design: Secondary analysis of a three-month observational study of prescribed ER/LA opioids monitored using electronic pill caps.

Setting: Two outpatient oncology clinics of a large health system in the Mid-Atlantic region.

Participants: Inclusion was based on self-identified African Americans and...

HIV and Suicide Risk

Sep. 14, 2020

In recent years, remarkable achievements in HIV testing and antiretroviral therapies have improved the detection, management, and care of persons living with HIV (PLWH). In the 1980s and 90s, patients with HIV infection faced a devastating prognosis. But now, with proper medications and support, PLWH can enjoy long and fulfilling lives. Thus, when the topic of suicide among PLWH is raised, many physicians are surprised. They often ask me, “wasn’t suicide an issue of a time before we had access to antiretroviral therapies?”

Stay-At-Home Orders And Second Waves: A Graphical Exposition

Sep. 10, 2020

Kent A. Smetters

Abstract [from journal]

Integrated epidemiological-economics models have recently appeared to study optimal government policy, especially stay-at-home orders (mass "quarantines"). But these models are challenging to interpret due to the lack of closed-form solutions. This note provides an intuitive and graphical explanation of optimal quarantine policy. To be optimal, a quarantine requires "the cavalry" (e.g., mass testing, strong therapeutics, or a vaccine) to arrive just in time, not too early or too late. The graphical explanation accommodates numerous

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Know Your Epidemic, Know Your Response: Early perceptions of COVID-19 And Self-Reported Social Distancing In The United States

Hans-Peter Kohler, PhD
Sep. 4, 2020

Alberto Ciancio, Fabrice Kämpfen, Iliana V. Kohler, Daniel Bennett, Wändi Bruine de Bruin, Jill Darling, Arie Kapteyn, Jürgen Maurer, Hans-Peter Kohler 

Abstract [from journal]

As COVID-19 is rapidly unfolding in the United States, it is important to understand how individuals perceive the health and economic risks of the pandemic. In the absence of a readily available medical treatment, any strategy to contain the virus in the US will depend on the behavioral response of US residents. In this paper, we study individual's perceptions on COVID-19 and social distancing during the week of March 10-16, 2020, a week when COVID-19 was officially declared to be a pandemic by WHO and when new infections in the US

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