Risk Communication

The exchange of information about the probability and consequences of adverse events, and how these risks are perceived and managed.

HIV and Suicide Risk

Sep. 14, 2020

In recent years, remarkable achievements in HIV testing and antiretroviral therapies have improved the detection, management, and care of persons living with HIV (PLWH). In the 1980s and 90s, patients with HIV infection faced a devastating prognosis. But now, with proper medications and support, PLWH can enjoy long and fulfilling lives. Thus, when the topic of suicide among PLWH is raised, many physicians are surprised. They often ask me, “wasn’t suicide an issue of a time before we had access to antiretroviral therapies?”

Know Your Epidemic, Know Your Response: Early perceptions of COVID-19 And Self-Reported Social Distancing In The United States

Hans-Peter Kohler, PhD
Sep. 4, 2020

Alberto Ciancio, Fabrice Kämpfen, Iliana V. Kohler, Daniel Bennett, Wändi Bruine de Bruin, Jill Darling, Arie Kapteyn, Jürgen Maurer, Hans-Peter Kohler 

Abstract [from journal]

As COVID-19 is rapidly unfolding in the United States, it is important to understand how individuals perceive the health and economic risks of the pandemic. In the absence of a readily available medical treatment, any strategy to contain the virus in the US will depend on the behavioral response of US residents. In this paper, we study individual's perceptions on COVID-19 and social distancing during the week of March 10-16, 2020, a week when COVID-19 was officially declared to be a pandemic by WHO and when new infections in the US

...

Harnessing Implementation Science To Optimize Harm Prevention In Critically Ill Children: A Pilot Study Of Bedside Nurse CLABSI Bundle Performance In The Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

Aug. 17, 2020

Charlotte Z. Woods-Hill, Kelly Papili, Eileen Nelson, Kathryn Lipinski, Judy SheaRinad BeidasMeghan Lane-Fall

Abstract [from journal]

Objectives: Central-line associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) is associated with increased mortality, morbidity, and cost in hospitalized children. An evidence-based bundle of care can decrease CLABSI, but bundle compliance is imperfect. We explored factors impacting bundle performance in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) by bedside nurses.

Methods: Single-center cross sectional electronic survey of PICU bedside nurses in an academic tertiary care center; using the COM-B (

...

Suicide Risk Among Persons Living With HIV

Aug. 3, 2020

Lily A. Brown, Ifrah Majeed, Wenting Mu, Jesse McCann, Stephen Durborow, Song Chen, Michael B. Blank

Abstract [from journal]

Persons living with HIV (PLWH) are significantly more likely to die by suicide compared to the general population. This is the first study to examine the impact of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), insomnia, and substance use disorders on suicidal ideation/behavior among PLWH using electronic medical record (EMR) data. We also evaluated the mutual influence of interactions between PTSD and substance use disorders on suicide risk, consistent with the substance abuse, violence exposure, and HIV/AIDS

...

Association Between Mothers' Postoperative Opioid Prescriptions and Opioid-Related Events in their Children: A Population-Based Cohort Study

Jul. 15, 2020

Jennifer Bethell, Mark D. Neuman, Brian T. Bateman, Karim S. Ladha, Andrea Hill, Guohua Li, Duminda N. Wijeysundera, Hannah Wunsch

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Postoperative opioid prescriptions may be associated with risks of unintentional poisoning and drug diversion in other household members. The objective of this study was to explore the association between mothers' postoperative opioid prescriptions and incidence of opioid-related events in their children (aged 1 to 24 years).

Data and methods: This retrospective cohort study used individually linked administrative health data from Ontario, Canada. A population-based sample of 170,

...

Patient Advocates For Low-Income Adults With Moderate-Severe Asthma: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Andrea Apter, MD, MA, MSc
Jul. 13, 2020

Andrea J. Apter, Luzmercy Perez, Xiaoyan Han, Grace Ndicu, Anna Localio, Hami Park, Alyssa N. Mullen, Heather Klusaritz, Marisa Rogers, Zuleyha Cidav, Tyra Bryant-Stephens, Bruce G. Bender, Susan T. Reisine, Knashawn H. Morales

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Few interventions have targeted low-income adults with moderate-severe asthma despite their high mortality.

Objective: To assess whether a Patient Advocate intervention improves asthma outcomes over usual care.

Methods: This 2-armed randomized clinical trial recruited adults with moderate-severe asthma from primary care and asthma specialty practices serving low-income neighborhoods. Patients were randomized to 6 months of a Patient Advocate Intervention or

...

Incidence Rates Of And Risk Factors For Opioid Overdose In New Users Of Prescription Opioids Among US Medicaid Enrollees: A Cohort Study

Jul. 10, 2020

Young Hee Nam, Warren B. Bilker, Francesco J. DeMayoMark D. NeumanSean Hennessy

Abstract [from journal]

Purpose: To measure incidence rates of and risk factors for opioid overdose among new users of prescription opioids in the Medicaid population.

Methods: A cohort study using Medicaid claims from four states (1999-2012) among adults continuously enrolled in Medicaid for ≥3 years free of opioid prescriptions and opioid overdose before cohort entry. Exposure and outcome of interest were prescription opioid use and apparent incident opioid overdose identified in inpatient and outpatient claims (

...

As Violence Unfolds: A Space-Time Study Of Situational Triggers Of Violent Victimization Among Urban Youth

Douglas Wiebe, PhD, University of Pennsylvania
Jun. 25, 2020

Beidi Dong, Christopher N. Morrison, Charles C. Branas, Therese S. RichmondDouglas J. Wiebe

Abstract [from journal]

Objectives: This study clarifies three important issues regarding situational or opportunity theories of victimization: 1) whether engaging in risk activities triggers violent assault during specific, often fleeting moments, 2) how environmental settings along individuals' daily paths affect their risk of violent assault, and 3) whether situational triggers have differential effects on violent assault during the day versus night.

Methods: Using an innovative GIS-assisted interview technique,

...

Parkinson Disease Associated Differences In Elective Orthopedic Surgery Outcomes: A National Readmissions Database Analysis

Allison Willis, MD
Jun. 22, 2020

Michelle Fullard, Dylan Thibault, Hanan Zisling, James A. Crispo, Allison Willis

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Advances in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) have allowed for improvements in mortality and quality survival, making the management of comorbid conditions of aging, such as osteoarthritis, crucial.

Objective: To determine the extent to which PD impacts hospitalization outcomes after an elective orthopedic procedure.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study used data from the National Readmissions Database and included adults ages 40 and above with

...

Universal Background Checks For Handgun Purchases Can Reduce Homicide Rates Of African Americans

Elinore Kaufman, U of Penn
Jun. 1, 2020

Elinore J. Kaufman, Christopher N. Morrison, Erik J. Olson, David K. Humphreys, Douglas J. Wiebe, Niels D. Martin, Carrie A. Sims, Mark H. Hoofnagle, C. William Schwab, Patrick M. Reilly, Mark J. Seamon

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Federal law requires background checks for firearms purchased from licensed dealers, but states can extend requirements to private sales of handguns and purchases at gun shows (universal background checks for handguns [UBC-HG]). Although firearm homicide disproportionately affects African Americans, little is known about how UBG-HG impacts African Americans. We hypothesized that implementation of UBC-HG would reduce rates of firearm homicide of African Americans.

Methods: We

...

Pages