Substance Use

The use or misuse of substances such as alcohol, tobacco, cannabis (marijuana), stimulants, hallucinogens, and opioids.

Opioid Use in Pregnant Women With Mental Health-Related Disabilities

Jan. 10, 2021

Panagiota Kitsantas, Amy R. Adams, Jehanzeb Cheema, Melanie L. Kornides 

Abstract [from journal]

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine associations between opioid use and the degree of mental health-related disability due to emotional/behavioral problems as measured by the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) instrument in a national sample of pregnant women.

Methods: We used data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health 2014-2017 which included 2,888 pregnant women 18 years or older. The WHODAS instrument was utilized to measure disability


Considering the Harms of Our Habits: The Reflexive Urine Drug Screen in Opioid Use Disorder Treatment

Dec. 19, 2020

Utsha G. Khatri, Shoshana V. Aronowitz

Abstract [from journal]

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to abrupt changes in the delivery of substance use treatment, notably the adoption of telehealth services and a departure from mandatory urine drug screens (UDS). Amid current circumstances, the UDS, which had evolved to signal a "successful" recovery, no longer seems feasible, safe, or necessary. Even prior to the pandemic, the UDS had notable drawbacks, including sending a message of mistrust and hierarchy, potentially causing psychological trauma, and incentivizing falsification. Nonetheless, certain


Health Economic Design for Cost, Cost-Effectiveness and Simulation Analyses in the HEALing Communities Study

Dec. 1, 2020

Arnie P. Aldridge, Carolina Barbosa, Joshua A. Barocas, Joshua L. Bush, Jagpreet Chhatwal, Kristin J. Harlow, Ayaz Hyder, Benjamin P. Linas, Kathryn E. McCollister, Jake R. Morgan, Sean M. Murphy, Caroline Savitzky, Bruce R. Schackman, Eric E. Seiber, Laura E. Starbird, Jennifer...

Abstract [from journal]

Background: The HEALing Communities Study (HCS) is designed to implement and evaluate the Communities That HEAL (CTH) intervention, a conceptually driven framework to assist communities in selecting and adopting evidence-based practices to reduce opioid overdose deaths. The goal of the HCS is to produce generalizable information for policy makers and community stakeholders seeking to implement CTH or a similar community intervention. To support this objective, one aim of the HCS is a health economics study (HES), the


Temporal Networks of Tobacco Withdrawal Symptoms During Smoking Cessation Treatment

David Lydon Staley
Nov. 30, 2020

David M. Lydon-Staley, Adam M. Leventhal, Megan E. Piper, Robert A. Schnoll, Danielle S. Bassett

Abstract [from journal]

A recently developed network perspective on tobacco withdrawal posits that withdrawal symptoms causally influence one another across time, rather than simply being indicators of a latent syndrome. Evidence supporting a network perspective would shift the focus of tobacco withdrawal research and intervention toward studying and treating individual withdrawal symptoms and intersymptom associations. Here we construct and examine temporal tobacco withdrawal networks that describe the interplay among withdrawal symptoms across time using


Adolescent E-Cigarette Onset And Escalation: Associations With Internalizing And Externalizing Symptoms

Nov. 3, 2020

Janet Audrain-McGovern, Daniel Rodriguez, Shannon Testa, Emily Alexander, Stephen Pianin

Abstract [from journal]

Purpose: We sought to evaluate if internalizing symptoms (i.e., anxiety and depression) and/or externalizing symptoms (i.e., impulsivity, sensation seeking, and substance use) were risk factors for the onset of 30-day e-cigarette use and escalation in the number of days used across the following 30 months among adolescents.

Methods: Adolescents (N = 1,808) from public high schools outside Philadelphia, PA, completed in-classroom surveys at wave 1 (fall 2016, beginning of ninth grade) and at 6-


A Toxic Blend: Assessing The Effects Of Cross-Source Media Coverage Of Flavored E-Cigarettes On Youth And Young Adult Perceptions

Robert C. Hornik, PhD
Oct. 26, 2020

Ava Kikut, Sharon Williams, Robert Hornik

Abstract [from journal]

Flavored e-cigarettes have received high attention across social and news media. How does exposure to e-cigarette flavors across multiple sources in the media environment influence youth e-cigarette perceptions? To address this question, we identified e-cigarette flavor mentions on 24.3 million Twitter posts and 11,691 longform texts (newspapers, broadcast news, and websites) disseminated over 3 years (2014-2017). During the same period, we measured e-cigarette beliefs through a nationally representative randomly sampled rolling


These Key Telehealth Policy Changes Would Improve Buprenorphine Access While Advancing Health Equity

Sep. 17, 2020

[Original post: Utsha Khatri, Corey S. Davis, Noa Krawczyk, Michael Lynch, Justin Berk, Elizabeth A. Samuels, These Key Telehealth Policy Changes Would Improve Buprenorphine Access While Advancing Health Equity, Health Affairs Blog, September 11, 2020. Copyright ©2020 Health Affairs by Project HOPE – The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.]

Gaps in the Use of Long-Acting Opioids Within Intervals of Consecutive Days Among Cancer Outpatients Using Electronic Pill Caps

Salima Meghani, RN, PhD, Penn Nursing School researcher
Sep. 16, 2020

Salimah H. Meghani, Amelia L. Persico, Jeffrey Fudin, George J. Knafl

Abstract [from journal]

Objective: This study describes individual cancer patients’ nonuse of extended-release or long-acting (ER/LA) opioids, including periods of gap between opioid doses taken.

Design: Secondary analysis of a three-month observational study of prescribed ER/LA opioids monitored using electronic pill caps.

Setting: Two outpatient oncology clinics of a large health system in the Mid-Atlantic region.

Participants: Inclusion was based on self-identified African Americans and...

HIV and Suicide Risk

Sep. 14, 2020

In recent years, remarkable achievements in HIV testing and antiretroviral therapies have improved the detection, management, and care of persons living with HIV (PLWH). In the 1980s and 90s, patients with HIV infection faced a devastating prognosis. But now, with proper medications and support, PLWH can enjoy long and fulfilling lives. Thus, when the topic of suicide among PLWH is raised, many physicians are surprised. They often ask me, “wasn’t suicide an issue of a time before we had access to antiretroviral therapies?”

The Impact Of Socially Stigmatized Preexisting Conditions On Outcomes After Injury

Sep. 8, 2020

Lucy W. Ma, Elinore J. Kaufman, Justin S. Hatchimonji, Ruiying Xiong, Dane R. Scantling, Jordan B. Stoecker, Daniel N. Holena

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Socially stigmatized preexisting conditions (SSPECs), including alcohol use disorder (AUD), drug use disorder (DUD), and major psychiatric illness, may lead to provider minimization of patient symptoms and have been associated with negative outcomes. However, the impact of SSPECs on failure to rescue (FTR) has not been evaluated. We hypothesized that SSPEC patients would have increased probability of complications, mortality, and FTR.

Materials and methods: We performed a