Substance Use

The use or misuse of substances such as alcohol, tobacco, cannabis (marijuana), stimulants, hallucinogens, and opioids.

Closing the gaps in opioid use disorder research, policy and practice: conference proceedings

Dec. 1, 2018

Matthew A. Miclette, Jared A. Leff, Isabella Cuan, Jeffrey H. Samet, Brendan Saloner, Gary Mendell, Yuhua Bao, Michael A. Ashburn, Marcus A. Bachhuber, Bruce R. Schackman, Daniel E. Polsky, Zachary F. Meisel

Abstract [from journal]

Drug overdose deaths involving opioids have surged in recent years and the economic cost of the opioid epidemic is estimated to be over $500 billion annually. In the midst of calls for declaring a national emergency, health policy decision makers are considering the best ways to allocate resources to curb the epidemic. On June 9, 2017, 116 invited health researchers, clinicians, policymakers, health system leaders, and other...

A Randomized Trial of Yoga for Stress and Substance Use among People Living With HIV in Reentry

Sep. 27, 2018

Alexandra S. Wimberly, Malitta Engstrom, Molly Layde, James R. McKay

Abstract [from journal]

Background: People in reentry from prison or jail (returning citizens) living with HIV and substance use problems often experience numerous stressors and are at high risk for resumed substance use. Interventions are needed to manage stress as a pathway to reduced substance use.

Objective: This study explored the effect of a hatha yoga intervention as compared to treatment as usual on stress and substance use among returning citizens living with HIV and substance use problems.

Methods:...

Cost-effective Screening and Treatment of Hepatitis C

Issue Brief
Sep. 17, 2018

In just five years, hepatitis C has changed from a difficult-to-treat chronic condition to one that is readily cured by a short course of medication. Medical breakthroughs have now created the possibility of eliminating the transmission of HCV, but also bring a new challenge for the health system—how to identify individuals carrying the hepatitis C virus (HCV), and how to pay for life-saving treatments. This Issue Brief reviews recent evidence on the cost-effectiveness of screening and treatment strategies, and makes the case for universal, one-time HCV screening for all US adults.

Adolescent E-Cigarette, Hookah, and Conventional Cigarette Use and Subsequent Marijuana Use

Janet Audrain McGovern, PhD
Sep. 12, 2018

Janet Audrain-McGovern, Matthew D. Stone, Jessica Barrington-Trimis, Jennifer B. Unger, Adam M. Leventhal

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL]

Objectives: Noncigarette tobacco products may confer a risk of marijuana use similar to combustible cigarettes. We examined whether adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette), hookah, or combustible cigarette use is associated with initiating and currently using marijuana as well as using both tobacco and marijuana concurrently.

Methods: Adolescents from 10 public schools in Los Angeles, California, completed in-classroom surveys at baseline (fall 2013,

...

Feasibility and Effects of Digital Interventions to Support People in Recovery From Substance Use Disorders: Systematic Review

Sep. 5, 2018

Sverre Nesvåg and James R. McKay 

Abstract [from journal]

Background: The development and evaluation of digital interventions aimed at preventing or treating substance use–related problems and disorders is a rapidly growing field. Previous reviews of such interventions reveal a large and complex picture with regard to targeted users, use, and efficacy.

Objective: The objective of this review was to investigate the feasibility and effects of interventions developed specifically for digital platforms. These interventions are focused on supporting people in recovery from...

Improving Opioid Stewardship for Acute Pain

Aug. 9, 2018

As the country faces an unprecedented opioid epidemic, there’s an active national conversation about how inappropriate prescribing contributes to chronic opioid use, misuse, and addiction. Evidence is rapidly evolving to inform the policy debate, especially regarding best practices for prescribing in acutely painful conditions, like an injury or surgery, but the evidence is less clear on the best policy solutions.

National Variation in Opioid Prescribing and Risk of Prolonged Use for Opioid-Naive Patients Treated in the Emergency Department for Ankle Sprains

Research Brief
Aug. 8, 2018

Between 2011 and 2015, nearly one in four patients with ankle sprains were prescribed opioids in the emergency department. The overall prescribing rate declined during the study period, but varied significantly by state, ranging from 2.8% in North Dakota to 40% in Arkansas. Patients prescribed the  largest amounts of opioid were nearly five times more likely to transition to continued use as those prescribed lesser amounts.

 

SUMR 2018 Attends AHRQ National Research Service Awards Conference

Jul. 2, 2018
The 24nd annual National Research Service Award (NRSA) Conference took place in tandem with the 2018 AcademyHealth Annual Research Meeting at the Sheraton Seattle Hotel and the adjacent Washington State Convention Center. NRSA is part of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) program that provides training, grants and other supports to undergraduate, predoctoral and postdoctoral trainees and fellows in the health services research field. This year's event was attended by 23 Summer Undergraduate Minority Research (SUMR) scholars from the University of Pennsylvania program co-...

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