Risk Communication

The exchange of information about the probability and consequences of adverse events, and how these risks are perceived and managed.

Pediatricians' Vaccine Attitudes and Practices Before and After a Major Measles Outbreak

Jul. 25, 2018

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL]

The objective of this study was to describe how a sample of pediatricians were impacted by and responded to the Disneyland measles outbreak in the United States. We conducted three repeated cross-sectional, online surveys in 2014 (before the outbreak), 2015, and 2016 (after the outbreak) among members of three state chapters of the American Academy of Pediatrics. We assessed pediatricians’ level of willingness and length of time comfortable delaying the measles–mumps–rubella (MMR) vaccine before and after the outbreak. Frequency of alternative immunization...

A National Survey of Young Women's Beliefs About Quitting Indoor Tanning: Implications for Health Communication Messages

Mar. 21, 2018

Amy Bleakley, Amy Jordan, Morgan E. Ellithorpe, DeAnn Lazovich, Sara Grossman, Karen Glanz

Abstract [from journal]

Indoor tanning is a risk factor for melanoma among young white women. Health communications can be an effective way of reaching this population and promoting behavior change. The purpose of this study was (i) to investigate the associations between intention to quit indoor tanning and attitudes, normative pressure, and efficacy about quitting, and (ii) to identify beliefs about quitting indoor tanning that can be used to design effective health communication messages to reduce skin cancer risk. A national online survey was conducted with 279 non-Hispanic...

Are mHealth Interventions to Improve Child Restraint System Installation of Value? A Mixed Methods Study of Parents

Dec. 6, 2017

Linda Fleisher, Danielle Erkoboni, Katherine Halkyard, Emily Sykes, Marisol S. Norris, Lorrie Walker, and ...

In the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Linda Fleisher and colleagues, including Danielle Erkoboni and Flaura Winston, identify gaps in parental knowledge about and perceived challenges in the use of appropriate child restraints in motor vehicles. They also explore the acceptability of using a mobile app to guide car seat installation. Injuries to passengers in motor vehicle crashes remain a leading cause of child mortality. As such, the delivery of information about proper child restrain systems (CRS) use...

Ridesharing and Motor Vehicle Crashes in 4 US Cities: An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis

Oct. 30, 2017

Christopher N. Morrison, Sara F. Jacoby, Beidi Dong, M. Kit Delgado, Douglas J. Wiebe 

In the American Journal of Epidemiology, Christopher Morrison and colleagues, including Sara Jacoby, M. Kit Delgado, and Douglas Wiebe, investigated if ridesharing, specifically if using Uber, reduces the rate of motor vehicle crashes.

The authors conducted an interrupted time series analyses using weekly counts of injury crashes and the proportion that were alcohol-involved in four US cities where Uber had piloted, abruptly ceased operations, and then abruptly resumed (Las Vegas, NV; Portland, OR; Reno, NV; San Antonio, TX). The authors hypothesized that Uber’s resumption...

The Association Between Urban Tree Cover and Gun Assault: a Case-Control and Case-Crossover Study

Jun. 30, 2017

Michelle C. Kondo, Eugenia C. South, Charles C. Branas, Therese S. Richmond, Douglas J. Wiebe      

In American Journal of Epidemiology, Michelle Kondo and colleagues, including Eugenia South, Therese Richmond, and Douglas Wiebe, investigate relationships between being in urban green space and experiencing gun violence. The authors conducted interviews with Philadelphia males aged 10-24, including victims of gun violence. They used statistical analyses to compare tree locations with gun assaults. They found that, when participants were under tree cover, they were less likely to experience gun violence. Numerous analyses and comparative models confirmed that being under tree...

Paying Research Participants: Regulatory Uncertainty, Conceptual Confusion, and a Path Forward

Jun. 29, 2017

Emily A. Largent, Holly Fernandez Lynch

In the Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law, and Ethics, Emily Largent and Holly Fernandez Lynch examine the implications of offering payment to individuals in exchange for their participation in clinical research, which is a widespread and longstanding practice.  Nevertheless, such payment remains the source of substantial debate, in particular about whether or the extent to which offers of payment coerce and/or unduly induce individuals to participate.  Yet, the various laws, regulations, and ethical guidelines that govern the conduct of human subjects research offer relatively...

Economic evaluation of a behavioral intervention versus brief advice for substance use treatment in pregnant women: results from a randomized controlled trial

Jun. 22, 2017

Xiao Xu, Kimberly A. Yonkers, and Jennifer Prah Ruger

In BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, Xiao Xu and colleagues, including Jennifer Ruger, assess the economic impact of motivational enhancement therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy (MET-CBT) among substance-using pregnant women. The study was performed alongside a clinical trial that compared the intervention to brief advice about the risks of substance use and found no significant differences in the outcomes such as drug and alcohol use. As such, the authors conducted a cost minimization analysis, from the perspective of the health system. They found that, while the intervention...

Promising Themes for Antismoking Campaigns Targeting Youth and Young Adults

Jun. 20, 2017

Emily Brennan, Laura A. Gibson, Ani Kybert-Momjian, Jiaying Liu, Robert C. Hornik

In Tobacco Regulatory Science, Emily Brennan and colleagues, including Robert Hornik, assess the impact of various anti-smoking themes in campaigns targeting youth and young adults. The authors surveyed 13- to 17-year-olds and 18- to 25-year-olds for their responses to 20 different potential campaign themes. The themes were aimed at four behavioral targets: preventing smoking initiation among youth (defined as 13-17 year olds), preventing initiation among young adults (defined as 18-25 year olds), stopping progression to daily smoking among young adults, and encouraging cessation...

A comparative effectiveness education trial for lifestyle health behavior change in African-Americans

Jun. 20, 2017

Chanita Hughes Halbert, Scarlett Bellamy, Vanessa Briggs, Ernestine Delmoor, Joseph Purnell, Rodney Rogers, Benita Weathers, Jerry C. Johnson

In Health Education Research, Chanita Hughes Halbert and colleagues, including Jerry Johnson, compared the effects of an education trial about risk factors for cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) within an African-American community. Participants were randomized to receive either integrated education about shared risk factors between cancer and CVD, or disease-specific education about CVD risk factors only. The authors assessed whether the type of education received affected fruit and vegetable intake or physical activity level. They find that when participants with less than...

Effect of message congruency on attention and recall in pictorial health warning labels

Jun. 19, 2017

Kristen Lochbuehler, Melissa Mercincavage, Kathy Z. Tang, C Dana Tomlin, Joseph N. Cappella, Andrew A. Strasser

In Tobacco Control, Kristen Lochbuehler and colleagues, including Joseph Cappella, investigate the effect of pictorial health warning label congruency on smokers’ attention and recall of label content. Daily smokers were randomly assigned to view pictorial warning labels (PWLs) where the label’s image and text were either congruent or incongruent in their theme. Participants had their eye movements tracked, and were asked to recall the label content both immediately after exposure and five days later. The authors find that those who viewed PWLs of a congruent theme spent less time...

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