Health Policy$ense

Who's Cooking and How Does It Relate to Health? Habits of Modern-day Americans

African Americans and US-born Hispanics Less Likely to Cook Dinner at Home

Many people -- medical professionals, mothers, writers, teachers, politicians -- advocate cooking as a means to better health. Yet we know very little about the cooking habits of different communities across our diverse nation. Strategies to improve health and prevent obesity assume that people have the motivation and ability to gather fresh ingredients and turn them into a delicious meal.

Caption

Senbagam Virudachalam, MD, MSHP, is a PolicyLab faculty member at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and a Pediatrics instructor at both CHOP and Penn's Perelman School of Medicine.

Factors driving decisions
For most of us though, that’s harder than it sounds. From making a grocery list, to budgeting, to watching the kids while something is boiling on the stove, regularly making the time and space to cook is not an easy task.

In a new paper, we examined 2007 and 2008 data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey that asked 10,149 Americans how frequently they cook dinner at home. On the whole, half of all Americans cook dinner 6 or 7 nights a week, though this varies across different populations.

Poorer, less educated households tended to cook dinner either all the time or not at all, while wealthier, more educated households tended to be in the middle, sometimes cooking and sometimes not. It is encouraging that many Americans with lower income and less education cook regularly because these communities are at the highest risk for poor health.

Kitchen costs
Of course, these findings make sense when considering the effort and money it takes to get a kitchen up and running, and keep it going. Wealthier families can afford to occasionally not use everything in their refrigerators and pantries, whereas for poorer families, once food is purchased, there is no choice but to use it. That is, when it comes to food and cooking, the marginal value of time appears to be greater for wealthier families, while the marginal value of money appears to be greater for poorer families.

We also found that cultural norms have a significant effect on people’s cooking patterns. African Americans and US-born Hispanics were less likely to cook dinner at home, even when accounting for income and education level. US-born Hispanics cooked an average of 5 nights per week, compared to foreign-born Hispanics who cooked an average of 6 nights per week, the most of any group. This suggests that those who acculturate into marginalized segments of American society may decrease their frequency of cooking at home.

Family structure
Family structure also plays an important role. Those living with a partner/spouse or children tended to cook more than their single or childless counterparts. This is not surprising given that cooking and feeding others are inherently social behaviors driven by a desire to provide both emotional and material stability; thus those living in social environments should be more likely to cook.

What are the implications of these findings? We know that home-cooked food is generally healthier than food prepared outside the home, so if many Americans are already cooking, then we have a ready pathway to improve people’s diets. Yet our research suggests that cooking may mean different things to different people. For some, finding time to cook may be a challenge. For others, it may be money that gets in the way. Identifying cooking as a means to greater health is only the first step. We must now work with individuals, families, and communities to better understand why they do or do not cook at home, and then design effective, sustainable, and scalable strategies to improve cooking habits across our diverse population.