Risk Communication

The exchange of information about the probability and consequences of adverse events, and how these risks are perceived and managed.

Suicide Risk Among Persons Living With HIV

Aug. 3, 2020

Lily A. Brown, Ifrah Majeed, Wenting Mu, Jesse McCann, Stephen Durborow, Song Chen, Michael B. Blank

Abstract [from journal]

Persons living with HIV (PLWH) are significantly more likely to die by suicide compared to the general population. This is the first study to examine the impact of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), insomnia, and substance use disorders on suicidal ideation/behavior among PLWH using electronic medical record (EMR) data. We also evaluated the mutual influence of interactions between PTSD and substance use disorders on suicide risk, consistent with the substance abuse, violence exposure, and HIV/AIDS


Association Between Mothers' Postoperative Opioid Prescriptions and Opioid-Related Events in their Children: A Population-Based Cohort Study

Jul. 15, 2020

Jennifer Bethell, Mark D. Neuman, Brian T. Bateman, Karim S. Ladha, Andrea Hill, Guohua Li, Duminda N. Wijeysundera, Hannah Wunsch

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Postoperative opioid prescriptions may be associated with risks of unintentional poisoning and drug diversion in other household members. The objective of this study was to explore the association between mothers' postoperative opioid prescriptions and incidence of opioid-related events in their children (aged 1 to 24 years).

Data and methods: This retrospective cohort study used individually linked administrative health data from Ontario, Canada. A population-based sample of 170,


Patient Advocates For Low-Income Adults With Moderate-Severe Asthma: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Andrea Apter, MD, MA, MSc
Jul. 13, 2020

Andrea J. Apter, Luzmercy Perez, Xiaoyan Han, Grace Ndicu, Anna Localio, Hami Park, Alyssa N. Mullen, Heather Klusaritz, Marisa Rogers, Zuleyha Cidav, Tyra Bryant-Stephens, Bruce G. Bender, Susan T. Reisine, Knashawn H. Morales

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Few interventions have targeted low-income adults with moderate-severe asthma despite their high mortality.

Objective: To assess whether a Patient Advocate intervention improves asthma outcomes over usual care.

Methods: This 2-armed randomized clinical trial recruited adults with moderate-severe asthma from primary care and asthma specialty practices serving low-income neighborhoods. Patients were randomized to 6 months of a Patient Advocate Intervention or


Incidence Rates Of And Risk Factors For Opioid Overdose In New Users Of Prescription Opioids Among US Medicaid Enrollees: A Cohort Study

Jul. 10, 2020

Young Hee Nam, Warren B. Bilker, Francesco J. DeMayoMark D. NeumanSean Hennessy

Abstract [from journal]

Purpose: To measure incidence rates of and risk factors for opioid overdose among new users of prescription opioids in the Medicaid population.

Methods: A cohort study using Medicaid claims from four states (1999-2012) among adults continuously enrolled in Medicaid for ≥3 years free of opioid prescriptions and opioid overdose before cohort entry. Exposure and outcome of interest were prescription opioid use and apparent incident opioid overdose identified in inpatient and outpatient claims (


As Violence Unfolds: A Space-Time Study Of Situational Triggers Of Violent Victimization Among Urban Youth

Douglas Wiebe, PhD, University of Pennsylvania
Jun. 25, 2020

Beidi Dong, Christopher N. Morrison, Charles C. Branas, Therese S. RichmondDouglas J. Wiebe

Abstract [from journal]

Objectives: This study clarifies three important issues regarding situational or opportunity theories of victimization: 1) whether engaging in risk activities triggers violent assault during specific, often fleeting moments, 2) how environmental settings along individuals' daily paths affect their risk of violent assault, and 3) whether situational triggers have differential effects on violent assault during the day versus night.

Methods: Using an innovative GIS-assisted interview technique,


Parkinson Disease Associated Differences In Elective Orthopedic Surgery Outcomes: A National Readmissions Database Analysis

Allison Willis, MD
Jun. 22, 2020

Michelle Fullard, Dylan Thibault, Hanan Zisling, James A. Crispo, Allison Willis

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Advances in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) have allowed for improvements in mortality and quality survival, making the management of comorbid conditions of aging, such as osteoarthritis, crucial.

Objective: To determine the extent to which PD impacts hospitalization outcomes after an elective orthopedic procedure.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study used data from the National Readmissions Database and included adults ages 40 and above with


Universal Background Checks For Handgun Purchases Can Reduce Homicide Rates Of African Americans

Elinore Kaufman, U of Penn
Jun. 1, 2020

Elinore J. Kaufman, Christopher N. Morrison, Erik J. Olson, David K. Humphreys, Douglas J. Wiebe, Niels D. Martin, Carrie A. Sims, Mark H. Hoofnagle, C. William Schwab, Patrick M. Reilly, Mark J. Seamon

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Federal law requires background checks for firearms purchased from licensed dealers, but states can extend requirements to private sales of handguns and purchases at gun shows (universal background checks for handguns [UBC-HG]). Although firearm homicide disproportionately affects African Americans, little is known about how UBG-HG impacts African Americans. We hypothesized that implementation of UBC-HG would reduce rates of firearm homicide of African Americans.

Methods: We


Are Sexual Minority Stressors Associated With Young Men Who Have Sex With Men's (YMSM) Level Of Engagement In PrEP?

José Bauermeister
May. 13, 2020

Steven Meanley, Cristian Chandler, Jessica Jaiswal, Dalmacio D. Flores, Robin Stevens, Daniel Connochie, José A Bauermeister

Abstract [from journal]

Sexual minority stressors (community homophobia, sexuality-related discrimination, and internalized homonegativity) are negatively associated with accessing HIV prevention services among men who have sex with men (MSM). Few studies have tested minority stressors' associations with PrEP engagement among high-HIV risk young MSM (YMSM). Therefore, we assessed the associations between PrEP-indicated YMSM's progression along the PrEP continuum and their experiences of minority stress. N = 229 YMSM completed a web-survey on PrEP-related behaviors and minority...

Concerns and Expectations of Parents Seeking Subspecialist Care for Their Child's Short Stature

Adda Grimberg, MD
Mar. 31, 2020

Talia Hitt, Kenneth R. Ginsburg, Pamela Cousounis, Terri H. Lipman, Andrew J. Cucchiara, Adda Grimberg

Abstract [from journal]

Introduction: Parents (PP) of children in primary care clinics previously reported factors influencing their height-related medical decision making. However, patients seeking height-related care in endocrine subspecialty clinics and their parents (EP) differ demographically from the general population.

Objective: To determine EP height-related medical concerns and expectations, and to compare between EP and PP.

Methods: EP completed a survey assessing their concerns in seeking medical


Parental Self-Efficacy And Health-Related Outcomes Among Children With Hirschsprung Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study

Mar. 21, 2020

Ying Dai, Haiqing Zheng, Huiying Liang, Ruiqiong Li, Menglong Lan, Jixiao Zeng

Abstract [from journal]

Purpose: Little attention has been put to parental self-efficacy (PSE) on the home care management and its impact on the health-related outcome in children with Hirschsprung disease (HD) after surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between PSE and post-operative outcome and quality of life (QoL) in children with HD.

Design and methods: This study adopted a cross-sectional study design. Children diagnosed with HD who had surgery during 2015 and