Disease Prevention / Health Promotion

Interventions, education and incentives that promote healthy behaviors and improve health outcomes.

Integrating Implementation Science in Clinical Research to Maximize Public Health Impact: A Call for the Reporting and Alignment of Implementation Strategy Use With Implementation Outcomes in Clinical Research

Nov. 25, 2020

Brittany N. RuddMolly DavisRinad S. Beidas

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Although comprehensive reporting guidelines for implementation strategy use within implementation research exist, they are rarely used by clinical (i.e., efficacy and effectiveness) researchers. In this debate, we argue that the lack of comprehensive reporting of implementation strategy use and alignment of those strategies with implementation outcomes within clinical research is a missed opportunity to efficiently narrow research-to-practice gaps.

Main body: We review ways that

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Oral Anticoagulant Use in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and Mitral Valve Repair

Nov. 24, 2020

Ashwin S. Nathan, Lin Yang, Zhi Geng, Elias J. DayoubSameed Ahmed M. Khatana, Paul N. Fiorilli, Howard C. Herrmann, Wilson Y. Szeto, Pavan Atluri, Michael A. Acker, Nimesh D. Desai, David S. Frankel, Francis E. Marchlinski, ...

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who have undergone mitral valve repair are at risk for thromboembolic strokes. Prior to 2019, only vitamin K antagonists were recommended for patients with AF who had undergone mitral valve repair despite the introduction of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) in 2010.

Objective: To characterize the use of anticoagulants in patients with AF who underwent surgical mitral valve repair (sMVR) or transcatheter mitral valve repair (tMVR).

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Frailty is a Risk Factor for Post-Operative Mortality in Patients With Cirrhosis Undergoing Diverse Major Surgeries

Nov. 23, 2020

Nadim Mahmud, David E. Kaplan, Tamar H. Taddei, David S. Goldberg

Abstract [from journal]

Background: With a rising burden of cirrhosis surgeries, understanding risk factors for post-operative mortality are more salient than ever. The role of baseline frailty has not been assessed in this context. We aimed to evaluate the association between patient frailty and post-operative risk among diverse patients with cirrhosis, and to determine if frailty improves prognostication of cirrhosis surgical risk scores.

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of U.S. Veterans with

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Association of COVID-19 Misinformation With Face Mask Wearing and Social Distancing in a Nationally Representative U.S. Sample

Robert C. Hornik, PhD
Nov. 22, 2020

Robert Hornik, Ava Kikut, Emma Jesch, Chioma Woko, Leeann Siegel, Kwanho Kim

Abstract [from journal]

Wide-spread misinformation about the COVID-19 pandemic has presented challenges for communicating public health recommendations. Should campaigns to promote protective behaviors focus on debunking misinformation or targeting behavior-specific beliefs? To address this question, we examine whether belief in COVID-19 misinformation is directly associated with two behaviors (face mask wearing and social distancing), and whether behavior-specific beliefs can account for this association and better predict behavior, consistent with

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A Mixed-Studies Review of the School-to-Prison Pipeline and a Call to Action for School Nurses

Nov. 11, 2020

Shoshana V. Aronowitz, BoRam Kim, Teri Aronowitz

Abstract [from journal]

Zero-tolerance school disciplinary policies have contributed to the proliferation of exclusionary practices, which increase the risk that minoritized students will be harmed by the school-to-prison pipeline (STPP). The purpose of this review was to explore factors that influence the STPP and highlight the role school nurses can play in protecting students from this public health crisis. We used a systematic mixed-studies review method, and 14 studies were included. Exclusionary discipline disproportionately affects minoritized

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Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Rates of Continuous Glucose Monitor Initiation and Continued Use in Children With Type 1 Diabetes

Nov. 11, 2020

Charlene W. Lai, Terri H. Lipman, Steven M. Willi, Colin P. Hawkes

Abstract [from journal]

Objective: Racial/ethnic disparities in continuous glucose monitor (CGM) use exist among children with type 1 diabetes. It is not known whether differential rates of device initiation or sustained use are the cause of this disparity. Our objective was to compare CGM initiation rates and continued use among non-Hispanic White (NHW), non-Hispanic Black (NHB), and Hispanic children.

Research design and methods: We conducted a retrospective review including children with type 1 diabetes attending

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The Impact of Change in Neighborhood Poverty on BMI Trajectory of 37,544 New York City Youth: A Longitudinal Study

Nov. 10, 2020

Krista Schroeder, Sophia Day, Kevin Konty, Levent Dumenci, Terri Lipman

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Neighborhood poverty may increase childhood obesity risk. However, evidence for the neighborhood poverty-obesity relationship is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine how moving to a higher or lower poverty neighborhood impacts body mass index (BMI) z-score trajectories among youth, with the goal of informing policy change, interventions, and clinical practices to reduce childhood obesity.

Methods: Methods entailed secondary analysis of existing longitudinal data. The

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Adolescent E-Cigarette Onset And Escalation: Associations With Internalizing And Externalizing Symptoms

Nov. 3, 2020

Janet Audrain-McGovern, Daniel Rodriguez, Shannon Testa, Emily Alexander, Stephen Pianin

Abstract [from journal]

Purpose: We sought to evaluate if internalizing symptoms (i.e., anxiety and depression) and/or externalizing symptoms (i.e., impulsivity, sensation seeking, and substance use) were risk factors for the onset of 30-day e-cigarette use and escalation in the number of days used across the following 30 months among adolescents.

Methods: Adolescents (N = 1,808) from public high schools outside Philadelphia, PA, completed in-classroom surveys at wave 1 (fall 2016, beginning of ninth grade) and at 6-

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Evaluation of COVID-19 Testing Strategies for Repopulating College and University Campuses: A Decision Tree Analysis

Nov. 2, 2020

Amelia Van PeltHenry A. Glick, Wei Yang, David Rubin, Michael Feldman, Stephen E. Kimmel

Abstract [from journal]

Purpose: The optimal approach to identify SARS-CoV-2 infection among college students returning to campus is unknown. Recommendations vary from no testing to two tests per student. This research determined the strategy that optimizes the number of true positives and negatives detected and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests needed.

Methods: A decision tree analysis evaluated five strategies: (1) classifying students with symptoms as having COVID-19, (2) RT-PCR

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The Hispanic/Latinx Perinatal Paradox In The United States: A Scoping Review And Recommendations To Guide Future Research

Diana Montoya-Williams, MD
Oct. 31, 2020

Diana Montoya-Williams, Victoria Guazzelli Williamson, Michelle Cardel, Elena Fuentes-Afflick, Mildred Maldonado-Molina, Lindsay Thompson

Abstract [from journal]

For decades, epidemiologists have documented a health advantage among Hispanic/Latinx individuals who live in the United States, despite their significant socioeconomic barriers. This observation is often described as the "Hispanic paradox." In this scoping review, we aimed to summarize literature published on Hispanic/Latinx perinatal outcomes over the past two decades and place these findings within the context of the overarching "Healthy Immigrant" paradox. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they utilized large population

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"I'm Dealing With That": Illness Concerns Of African American And White Cancer Patients While Undergoing Active Cancer Treatments

Salima Meghani, RN, PhD, Penn Nursing School researcher
Oct. 27, 2020

Salimah H. Meghani, Kristin Levoy, Kristin Corey Magan, Lauren T. Starr, Liana Yocavitch, Frances K. Barg

Abstract [from journal]

Background: National oncology guidelines recommend early integration of palliative care for patients with cancer. However, drivers for this integration remain understudied. Understanding illness concerns at the time of cancer treatment may help facilitate integration earlier in the cancer illness trajectory.

Objective: To describe cancer patients' concerns while undergoing cancer treatment, and determine if concerns differ among African Americans and Whites.

Methods: A

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Phosphorus Control for Dialysis Patients

Oct. 22, 2020

About one third of chronic dialysis patients have persistently high blood phosphorus levels, which increases risk for vascular damage, cardiovascular disease, and death. Some patients can control phosphorus levels through a healthy diet, although many also require the use of pills that remove dietary phosphorus in the gut. But what about patients with limited access to healthy food outlets?

Risk Of Non-infectious Uveitis Or Myasthenia Gravis In Patients On Checkpoint Inhibitors In A Large Healthcare Claims Database

Brian L. Vanderbeek, MD, MPH
Oct. 21, 2020

Tian Xia, Alexander J. Brucker, Brendan McGeehan, Brian L. VanderBeek

Abstract [from journal]

Aim: To determine if checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) confer an increased risk of non-infectious uveitis or myasthenia gravis (MG) compared to patients on non-checkpoint inhibitor (N-CPI) chemotherapy.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed comparing patients in a large commercial and Medicare advantage database exposed to CPI compared to N-CPI. All patients who initiated a CPI (ipilimumab, pembrolizumab, nivolumab, atezolizumab, avelumab, cemiplimab and durvalumab) were eligible.

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The Youth Firearm Risk And Safety Tool (Youth-First): Psychometrics And Validation Of A Gun Attitudes And Violence Exposure Assessment Tool

Oct. 1, 2020

Cheryl Beseler, Kimberly J. Mitchell, Lisa M. Jones, Heather A. Turner, Sherry Hamby, Roy Wade Jr.

Abstract [from journal]

This study reports on the development of a comprehensive assessment of exposure to guns and gun-related violence for evaluating the risk of gun-related trauma. Gun access, gun attitudes, gun safety education, and exposure to gun violence were measured. Participants were 630 youth, aged 2-17. Youth, ages 10-17, completed a self-report survey and caregivers of young children, ages 2-9, completed the survey as a proxy for that child. The youth were from urban (n = 286) and rural (n = 344) areas. Factor analysis, item response theory,

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A Novel Health-Transportation Partnership Paves The Road For Young Driver Safety Through Virtual Assessment

Oct. 1, 2020

Elizabeth A. Walshe, Daniel Romer, Venkatesh Kandadai, Flaura K. Winston

Abstract [from journal]

Motor vehicle crashes remain the leading cause of adolescent mortality and injury in the United States. For young drivers, crash risk peaks immediately after licensure and declines during the next two years, making the point of licensure an important safety intervention opportunity. Legislation in Ohio established a unique health-transportation partnership among the State of Ohio, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and Diagnostic Driving, Inc., to identify underprepared driver license applicants through a virtual driving assessment

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