Disease Prevention / Health Promotion

Interventions, education and incentives that promote healthy behaviors and improve health outcomes.

A Qualitative Evaluation of Patient-Perceived Benefits and Barriers to Participation in a Telephone Care Management Program

Jan. 29, 2016

Lindsay Jubelt, Kevin Volpp, Dana Gatto, Joelle Friedman, Judy Shea

In the American Journal of Health Promotion, Lindsay Jubelt and colleagues, including Kevin Volpp and Judy Shea, try to better understand the low participation rate of high-risk individuals in a targeted telephone care management program. Researchers interviewed patients who were recruited to participate in the care management program but had dropped out or never participated despite recruitment efforts. The most commonly cited barriers to participation were a lack of perceived need and a sense of distrust toward the program and its staff. These findings could help care management...

The Influence of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Health Warning Labels on Parents’ Choices

Jan. 29, 2016

Christina Roberto, Diandra Wong, Aviva Musicus, David Hammond

In Pediatrics, Christina Roberto and colleagues examine how health warning labels on sugar-sweetened beverages may influence parents and which types of labels are most impactful. In this study, parents participated in an online survey that randomly assigned them to one of 6 different beverage labels. Parents were then asked to choose a beverage for their child in a vending machine, rate perceptions of different beverages, and indicate interest in receiving beverage coupons. Significantly fewer parents chose sugary beverages for their child when presented with a warning label,...

Low Health Literacy Predicts Misperceptions of Diabetes Control in Patients With Persistently Elevated A1C

Jan. 11, 2016

Monica Ferguson, Judith Long, Jingsan Zhun, Dylan Small, Brittany Lawson, Henry Glick, Marilyn Schapira

In The Diabetes Educator, Monica Ferguson and colleagues, including Judith Long, Dylan Small, Henry Glick and Marilyn Schapira, investigate whether low health literacy is associated with inaccurate perceptions of diabetes control. The researchers conducted a cross-sectional analysis on adults with type 2 diabetes whose A1C levels are poorly controlled (>8% A1C). Perceived control and factors associated with outcomes, including health literacy, were assessed during an in-person interview. The researchers find that in the population of patients with poorly controlled diabetes, a...

Employers Take Note: Premium-Based Incentives For Weight Loss Don't Work

Jan. 5, 2016

A new study casts doubt on the effectiveness of reducing health insurance premiums as a way to encourage employees to lose weight. LDI Senior Fellow Mitesh Patel and his team, in a randomized controlled trial, test the effectiveness of a $550 incentive in promoting weight loss in obese employees. They found no difference in weight loss over the course of one year between the control group and three different kinds of incentive programs.

ACA-Mandated Elimination of Cost Sharing for Preventive Screening Has Had Limited Early Impact

Research Brief
Dec. 21, 2015

To reduce financial barriers to receiving recommended preventive care, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) eliminated patient cost sharing for many preventive services. This provision, rolled out between September 2010 and January 2011, applies to all private insurance plans and exempts ‘grandfathered plans’. In this study, LDI Senior Fellow Shivan Mehta and colleagues investigated whether this ACA provision has its intended effect on colonoscopy and mammography rates. 

MMR Vaccination Status of Children Exempted from School-entry Immunization Mandates

Nov. 19, 2015

Alison Buttenheim, Karthik Sethuraman, Saad Omer, Alexandra Hanlona, Michael Levy, Daniel Salmond

In Vaccine, Alison Buttenheim and colleagues assess how well rates of non-medical exemptions (NMEs) accurately reflect vaccine coverage rates in a population of school-aged children, and what this means for risk estimates of disease outbreaks. The authors looked specifically at the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine in California. Since getting an exemption in California is fairly simple, the authors hypothesized that parents or schools might opt for an exemption rather than track down the necessary paperwork on a child’s immunization status. Thus exemption rates would not give...

Awareness of Prediabetes and Engagement in Diabetes Risk–Reducing Behaviors

Oct. 29, 2015

Anjali Gopalan, Ilona Lorincz, Christopher Wirtalla, Steven Marcus, Judith Long

In the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Anjali Gopalan and colleagues, including Ilona Lorincz, Steven Marcus and Judith Long, explore whether prediabetes awareness impacts the odds of engaging in activities that reduce the risk for diabetes. Gopalan and colleagues identified prediabetic patients from two cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and divided the population into two groups: those who are aware and those who are unaware of their prediabetes status. The authors then asked the individuals about risk reduction activities such as physical...

Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption by Adult Caregivers and Their Children

Oct. 29, 2015

Michael Hennessy, Amy Bleakley, Jessica Piotrowski, Giridhar Mallya, Amy Jordan

In Health Education & Behavior, Michael Hennessy and colleagues, including Amy Jordan, examine how parents’ beliefs about beverage attributes and exposure to sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) advertising influences their own and their children’s consumption of SSB. In a telephone survey, researchers assessed parents and children’s consumption of four SSBs - non-diet soda, juice, sweetened tea, sports drinks, and energy drinks. Parental perception of SSBs as healthy was linked with increased parental SSB consumption for three of the five SSBs and with children’s consumption for...

Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Related Public Service Advertisements and Their Influence on Parents

Jul. 23, 2015

Amy Jordan, Amy Bleakley, Michael Hennessy, Sarah Vaala, Karen Glanz, Andrew Strasser

Cross-posted from the UPenn Prevention Research Center

In American Behavioral Scientist, Amy Jordan and colleagues, including Karen Glanz, use a novel experimental approach to identify the effectiveness of distinct persuasive strategies used in audiovisual (television-format) public service advertisements (PSAs) designed to encourage parents to reduce their children’s sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB)...