Disease Prevention / Health Promotion

Interventions, education and incentives that promote healthy behaviors and improve health outcomes.

An “Intention-Focused” Paradigm for Improving Bystander CPR Performance

Mar. 1, 2015

Ashish R. Panchal, Jessica Fishman, Teresa Camp-Rogers, Roksolana Starodub, Raina M. Merchant

In the journal Resuscitation, Raina Merchant and colleagues from Penn, Ohio State University and the University of Texas propose a new way to improve the rate of bystander CPR performed on people suffering from cardiac arrest. The authors’ approach involves an “intention-focused” model in place of the current “training-based” model, along with insights from behavior theory, to increase people’s motivation to use CPR. The authors propose to test the model through population surveys to evaluate differences in the intention to perform CPR. From this, subgroups can be identified which have...

Wearable Devices as Facilitators, Not Drivers, of Health Behavior Change

Feb. 3, 2015

Mitesh S. Patel, David A. Asch, Kevin G. Volpp

In a commentary in the Journal of the American Medical Association, Mitesh Patel, David Asch, and Kevin Volpp discuss the validity of claims that wearable devices promote long-term healthy behaviors. The authors contend that, although they may be useful in facilitating behavioral change in individuals already motivated to do so, using wearable devices to motivate people to instigate healthy changes is a challenge. Relatively high prices, potential inaccuracy of metrics, inconsistency of use, and difficulties in sustaining motivation are all significant barriers to success. Getting patients...

HIV Testing Among Adults with Mental Illness in the United States

Dec. 2, 2014

Baligh Yehia, Wanjun Cui, William Thompson, Matthew Zack, Lela McKnight-Eily, Elizabeth DiNenno, Charles E. Rose, and Michael B. Blank

In AIDS Patient Care and STDs, Baligh Yehia and colleagues explore the difference in rates of HIV testing for the mentally ill and the rest of the U.S. population. HIV infection and mental illness are frequently co-occurring health conditions, and nearly half of the people living with HIV have a psychiatric disorder. The researchers analyzed National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data, and found that the mentally ill population is tested at a significantly higher rate than the rest of the U.S. population. However, the rates of HIV testing are still low, with less than half of the...

Effects of Tailored Risk Communications for Skin Cancer Prevention and Detection: The PennSCAPE Randomized Trial

Nov. 28, 2014

Karen Glanz, Kathryn Volpicelli, Christopher Jepson, Michael E. Ming, Lynn M. Schuchter, Katrina Armstrong

In Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, Karen Glanz and colleagues investigate whether personalized print materials are more effective than generic ones in promoting preventive behavior among patients at high risk for skin cancer. Their study measures adherence to sun protection behaviors, like sunscreen use and self-examination, as well as reported recent sunburns among 192 Caucasian adults at risk for skin cancer. Participants were randomized to receive either personalized or generic print materials. The authors find that the tailored communications are associated with...