Disease Prevention / Health Promotion

Interventions, education and incentives that promote healthy behaviors and improve health outcomes.

Treatments Administered To The First 9152 Reported Cases Of COVID-19: A Systematic Review

May. 27, 2020

David C. Fajgenbaum, Johnson S. Khor, Alexander Gorzewski, Mark-Avery Tamakloe, Victoria Powers, Joseph J. Kakkis, Mileva Repasky, Anne Taylor, Alexander Beschloss, Laura Hernandez-Miyares, Beatrice Go, Vivek Nimgaonkar, Madison S. McCarthy, Casey J. Kim, Ruth-Anne Langan Pai, ...

Abstract [from journal]

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2/2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has created a global pandemic with no approved treatments or vaccines. Many treatments have already been administered to COVID-19 patients but have not been systematically evaluated. We performed a systematic literature review to identify all treatments reported to be administered to COVID-19 patients and to assess time to clinically meaningful response for treatments with sufficient data. We searched PubMed, BioRxiv, MedRxiv, and ChinaXiv for articles reporting treatments


Applying the Haddon Matrix Conceptual Model To Guide Motor Vehicle Crash Injury Research and Prevention in Botswana

Douglas Wiebe, PhD, University of Pennsylvania
May. 26, 2020

Claire Bocage, Yohana Mashalla, Paul Motshome, Othusitse Fane, Lydia Masilo-Nkhoma, Olorato Mathiba, Emang Mautle, Botsile Kuiperij, Tlhabano Mmusi, John H. Holmes, Vicky Tam, Frances K. Barg, Douglas J. Wiebe

Abstract [from journal]

Introduction: Little literature addresses the burden of injury in Botswana, including trauma from motor-vehicle crashes (MVCs). In response, the University of Botswana and the Botswana Ministry of Health and Wellness are collaborating with the University of Pennsylvania to enhance injury and trauma research capacity in Botswana. Here we describe this training program and a research exercise to identify opportunities to prevent, through future research and countermeasures, MVCs specifically in Botswana.


Receipt Of Substance Use Counseling Among Ambulatory Patients Prescribed Opioids In The United States

May. 22, 2020

Kirk E. Evoy, Charles E. Leonard, Jordan R. Covvey, Leslie Ochs, Alyssa M. Peckham, Samantha Soprano, Kelly R. Reveles

Abstract [from journal]

Background: As opioid-related overdose deaths climb in the U.S., risk reduction measures are increasingly important. One such measure recommended involves provision of proactive substance use counseling regarding the risks of opioid analgesics. This is particularly important in patients at increased risk of overdose, such as those with substance use disorders (SUD) or those receiving concomitant medications that further increase the overdose risk (eg, benzodiazepines, gabapentinoids, or Z-hypnotics). However, previous


Preadmission Cannabis Use Is Positively Correlated With Inpatient Opioid Dose Exposure In Hospitalized Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

Shivan J. Mehta, MD, MBA
May. 22, 2020

Rahul S Dalal, Sonali Palchaudhuri, Christopher K Snider, James D Lewis, Shivan J Mehta, Gary R Lichtenstein


Background: Opioid use is associated with excess mortality in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recent data have highlighted that inpatient opioid exposure is associated with postdischarge opioid use in this population. It is unknown if preadmission use of cannabis, which is commonly used for symptom relief among patients with IBD, increases the risk for inpatient opioid exposure when patients lack access to cannabis for symptom management. We sought to determine the association between preadmission


Annual Prevalence Of Use Of Potentially Inappropriate Medications For Treatment Of Affective Disorders In Parkinson's Disease

May. 18, 2020

Danielle S. Abraham, Thanh Phuong Pham Nguyen, Sean Hennessy, Shelly L. Gray, Dawei Xie, Daniel Weintraub, Allison W. Willis

Abstract [from journal]

Objective: To examine the national prevalence of pharmacological treatment of affective disorders in older adults with Parkinson's disease (PD), and determine the prevalence and risk factors for receipt of an American Geriatrics Society Beers Criteria® defined potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) for affective disorder treatment.

Design: Cross-sectional analysis of 2014 Medicare data.

Setting: Research Identifiable File data from the Centers for Medicare and


ED Visits And Readmissions After Follow-up For Mental Health Hospitalization

Stephanie Doupnik, MD
May. 13, 2020

Naomi S. Bardach, Stephanie K. Doupnik, Jonathan Rodean, Bonnie T. Zima, James C. Gay, Carol Nash, Yasas Tanguturi, Tumaini R. Coker

Abstract [from journal]

Objectives: A national quality measure in the Child Core Set is used to assess whether pediatric patients hospitalized for a mental illness receive timely follow-up care. In this study, we examine the relationship between adherence to the quality measure and repeat use of the emergency department (ED) or repeat hospitalization for a primary mental health condition.

Methods: We used the Truven MarketScan Medicaid Database 2015-2016, identifying hospitalizations with a primary diagnosis of depression, bipolar disorder...

Dual-Method Contraception Use Among Young Women Pre- And Post-ACA Implementation

May. 12, 2020

Tiffany M. Montgomery, Alisa J. Stephens-Shields, Marilyn M. Schapira, Aletha Y. Akers

Abstract [from journal]

The 2012 implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) contraceptive coverage mandate removed financial barriers to contraception access for many insured women. Since that time, increases in sexually transmitted disease (STD) rates have been noted, particularly among Black adolescent and young adult women aged 15 to 24 years. It is unclear whether changes in dual-method contraception use (simultaneous use of nonbarrier contraceptive methods and condoms) are associated with the increase in STD rates. A repeated cross...

Framing Social Comparison Feedback With Financial Incentives For Physical Activity Promotion: A Randomized Trial

May. 11, 2020

Mitesh S Patel, David A Asch, Roy Rosin, Dylan S Small, Scarlett L Bellamy, Karen Hoffer, David Shuttleworth, Victoria Hilbert, Jingsan Zhu, Lin Yang, Xingmei Wang, Kevin G Volpp

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Social comparison feedback is often used in physical activity interventions but the optimal design of feedback is unknown.

Methods: This 4-arm, randomized trial consisted of a 13-week intervention period and 13-week follow-up period. During the intervention, 4-person teams were entered into a weekly lottery valued at about $1.40/day and contingent on the team averaging ≥7000 steps per day. Social comparison feedback on performance was delivered weekly for 26 weeks, and varied by reference point (50th vs...

Text Messaging And Lottery Incentive To Improve Colorectal Cancer Screening Outreach At A Community Health Center: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Shivan J. Mehta, MD, MBA
May. 8, 2020

Shivan J. Mehta, Akinbowale Oyalowo, Catherine Reitz, Owen Dean, Timothy McAuliffe, David A. Asch, Chyke A. Doubeni

Abstract [from journal]

Efforts to boost colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates in underserved populations have been limited by effectiveness and scalability. We evaluate the impact of adding a lottery-based financial incentive to a text messaging program that asks patients to opt-in to receive mailed fecal immunochemical testing (FIT). This is a two-arm pragmatic randomized controlled trial at a community health center in Southwest Philadelphia from April to July 2017. We included CRC screening-eligible patients between ages 50-74 years who had a mobile


Providing Incentive for Emergency Physician X-Waiver Training: An Evaluation of Program Success and Postintervention Buprenorphine Prescribing

May. 3, 2020

Sean D. Foster, Kathleen Lee, Christopher Edwards, Arthur P. Pelullo, Utsha G. Khatri, Margaret Lowenstein, Jeanmarie Perrone

Abstract [from journal]

Study Objective: Emergency department (ED) initiation of buprenorphine for patients with opioid use disorder increases treatment engagement but remains an uncommon practice. One important barrier to ED-initiated buprenorphine is the additional training requirement (X waiver). Our objective is to evaluate the influence of a financial incentive program on emergency physician completion of X-waiver training. Secondary objectives are to evaluate the program's effect on buprenorphine prescribing and to explore physician attitudes toward


HIV Self-Testing Can Be Liberating to HIV-Positive Women and Their Sexual Partners: A Qualitative Study in Kisumu, Western Kenya

Apr. 29, 2020

Kawango Agot, Gift-Noelle Wango, Beatrice Obonyo, Harsha Thirumurthy

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Nearly half of Kenyan men with HIV-positive partners do not know their partner's status. We carried out a qualitative substudy to explore the experiences of a sample of HIV-positive women when distributing HIV self-tests (HIVST) to their sexual partners.

Methods: HIV-positive women were invited for in-depth interviews to share their experiences in offering HIVST to their partners and how self-testing impacted their relationships.

Results: Two hundred ninety-seven women were