Disease Prevention / Health Promotion

Interventions, education and incentives that promote healthy behaviors and improve health outcomes.

Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty Vs. Total Knee Arthroplasty for Medial Compartment Arthritis in Patients Older Than 75 Years: Comparable Reoperation, Revision, and Complication Rates

Jul. 11, 2017

Homayoun Siman, Atul F. Kamath, Nazly Carrillo, William S. Harmsen, Mark W. Pagnano, Rafael J. Sierra

In The Journal of Arthroplasty, Homayoun Siman and colleagues, including Atul Kamath, assess the effectiveness of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) vs. total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in similar patients. Prior studies have shown that UKA procedures have advantages over TKA, including preservation of bone stock, shorter and easier recovery, lower overall cost, lower morbidity, better functional outcome, and subjective feeling of a more natural knee. The authors conducted a retrospective review of patients 75 years and older who underwent UKA or TKA over a 10-year period in...

Treatment seeking as a mechanism of change in a randomized controlled trial of a mobile health intervention to support recovery from alcohol use disorders

Jul. 10, 2017

Joseph E. Glass, James R. McKay, David H. Gustafson, Rachel Kornfield, Paul J. Rathouz, Fiona M. McTavish, Amy K. Atwood, Andrew Isham, Andrew Quanbeck, Dhavan Shah

In Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, Joseph Glass and colleagues, including James McKay, assessed the efficacy of an Addiction-Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (A-CHESS) in increasing the use of services for addiction. This model is an electronic health framework that has been applied to a diverse set of health problems, including pediatric asthma and breast and lung cancer, and was previously adopted to alcohol addiction in a randomized-controlled trial. The authors conducted secondary data analyses of this trial, including 349 adults with alcohol use disorders...

Understanding patient-centred readmission factors: a multi-site, mixed-methods study

Jul. 5, 2017

Ryan Greysen, James D. Harrison, Sunil Kripalani, Eduard Vasilevskis, Edmondo Robinson, Joshua Metlay, Jeffery L. Schnipper, David Meltzer, Neil Sehgal, Gregory W Ruhnke, Mark V. Williams, Andrew D. Auerbach

In BMJ Quality & Safety, Ryan Greysen and colleagues characterize patient- and caregiver-reported factors that contribute to hospital readmissions in general medicine patients. While patient concerns at or before discharge inform many transitional care interventions, few studies examine patients’ perceptions of self-care and other factors related to readmission. The authors surveyed more than 1,000 patient readmitted to 12 hospitals, with multiple choice and open-ended questions that assessed post-discharge difficulty in seven domains of self-care. These domains included...

The Role of Stewardship in Addressing Antibacterial Resistance: Stewardship and Infection Control Committee of the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group

Jul. 5, 2017

Deverick J. Anderson, Timothy C. Jenkins, Scott R. Evans, Anthony D. Harris, Robert A. Weinstein, Pranita D. Tamma, Jennifer H. Han, Ritu Banerjee, Robin Patel, Theoklis Zaoutis, Ebbing Lautenbach

In Clinical Infectious Diseases, Deverick Anderson and colleagues, including Jennifer Han and Ebbing Lautenbach, describe the activities of the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) in the area of antibacterial stewardship. Antibacterial resistance is increasing globally and has been recognized as a major public health threat. Antibacterial stewardship is the coordinated effort to improve the appropriate use of antibiotics with the aim to decrease selective pressure for multidrug-resistant organisms in order to preserve the utility of antibacterial agents. To date, the...

Coercion or Caring: The Fundamental Paradox for Adherence Interventions for HIV+ People With Mental Illness

Jul. 3, 2017

Marlene M. Eisenberg, Michael Hennessy, Donna Coviello, Nancy Hanrahan, Michael B. Blank

In AIDS and Behavior, Marlene Eisenberg and colleagues, including Nancy Hanrahan and Michael Blank, examine if a high-intensity HIV-treatment intervention would be perceived as coercive by HIV-positive individuals with serious mental illness. Previous research has shown that potentially coercive mandates during the earliest stages of mental health treatment are associated with later treatment benefits. Furthermore, the prevalence of HIV is significantly higher among populations with mental illness. The authors developed an HIV management regimen that utilized advance practice...

Effect of Electronic Reminders, Financial Incentives, and Social Support on Outcomes After Myocardial Infarction

Jun. 30, 2017

Kevin G. Volpp, Andrea B. Troxel, Shivan J. Mehta, Laurie Norton, Jingsan Zhu, Raymond Lim, Wenli Wang, Noora Marcus, Christian Terwiesch, Kristen Caldarella, Tova Levin, Mike Relish, Nathan Negin, Aaron Smith-...

In JAMA Internal Medicine, Kevin Volpp and colleagues, including Shivan Mehta, Christian Terwiesch, Kristen Caldarella, and David Asch, investigate whether medication reminders, as well as financial and social support, delay re-hospitalization for a vascular event. The authors randomized participants to either a usual care group (the control), or to an intervention using electronic pill bottles, lottery incentives, and social support for medication adherence. The primary measured outcome of this study was time to first vascular-related re-hospitalization or death, but the authors...

Financial Incentives for Adherence to Hepatitis C Virus Clinical Care and Treatment: A Randomized Trial of Two Strategies

Jun. 29, 2017

David A. Wohl, Andrew G. Allmon, Donna Evon, Christopher Hurt, Sarah Ailleen Reifeis, Harsha Thirumurthy, Becky Straub, Angela Edwards, Katie R. Mollan

In Open Forum Infectious Diseases, David Wohl and colleagues, including Harsha Thirumurthy, assess the feasibility of two strategies for financially incentivizing adherence to Hepatitis C (HCV) care among patients with substance use disorders. Previous research has shown that, although rates of a sustained response to the virus (SVR) surpass 90%, patients experiencing substance use disorders may struggle to adhere to HCV care. The authors randomly assigned participants to either a fixed or lottery-based monetary incentive for attending clinic appointments, adhering to medications...

Relationships between Parent-Adolescent Communication, Acculturation, and Sexual Knowledge on Latino Adolescent Sexual Behavior: A Systematic Review

Jun. 28, 2017

Vanessa Pirani Gaioso, Lynda Law Wilson, Antonia Maria Villarruel, Gwendolyn Denice Childs

In International Journal of Studies in Nursing, Vanessa Gaioso and colleagues, including Antonia Villarruel, assess the relationship between specific cultural variables and Latino adolescents' sexual behavior. The authors conducted a systematic review of studies addressing the relationship between selected parenting variables and Latino adolescent sexual behavior. The authors find that cultural attitudes towards sexual behavior are associated with adolescent intentions to have intercourse and to use condoms. However, few studies examined any predictors of parent-adolescent sexual...

Association of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation With Overall and Neurologically Favorable Survival After Pediatric Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in the United States

Jun. 22, 2017

Maryam Y. Naim, Rita V. Burke, Bryan F. McNally, Lihai Song, Heather M. Griffis, Robert A. Berg, Kimberly Vellano, David Markenson, Richard N. Bradley, Joseph W. Rossano

In JAMA Pediatrics, Maryam Naim and colleagues, including Joseph Rossano, investigate effects of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The authors analyze data from the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival, and find that out of 3,900 instances of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests, bystander CPR was provided in 1,814. Children who were treated with either conventional bystander CPR or compression-only CPR had higher survival rates and more favorable neurological outcomes than did those who were not treated with CPR....

Economic evaluation of a behavioral intervention versus brief advice for substance use treatment in pregnant women: results from a randomized controlled trial

Jun. 22, 2017

Xiao Xu, Kimberly A. Yonkers, and Jennifer Prah Ruger

In BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, Xiao Xu and colleagues, including Jennifer Ruger, assess the economic impact of motivational enhancement therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy (MET-CBT) among substance-using pregnant women. The study was performed alongside a clinical trial that compared the intervention to brief advice about the risks of substance use and found no significant differences in the outcomes such as drug and alcohol use. As such, the authors conducted a cost minimization analysis, from the perspective of the health system. They found that, while the intervention...

Development of a Patient-centered Outcome Measure for Emergency Department Asthma Patients

Jun. 21, 2017

Margaret E. Samuels-Kalow, Karin V. Rhodes, Mira Henien, Emily Hardy, Thomas Moore, Felicia Wong, Carlos A. Camargo Jr., Caroline T. Rizzo, Cynthia Mollen

In Academic Emergency Medicine, Margaret Samuels-Kalow and colleagues, including Karin Rhodes and Cynthia Mollen, explore patient-reported outcome measures for Emergency Department care among asthma patients.  As existing patient-reported outcome measures have limited applicability to emergency medicine, the authors seek to identify patient-centered concepts specific to emergent asthma care. They completed a three-phase qualitative study, in which adult asthma patients and parents of pediatric asthma patients identified important concepts for post-ED discharge success. These...

Promising Themes for Antismoking Campaigns Targeting Youth and Young Adults

Jun. 20, 2017

Emily Brennan, Laura A. Gibson, Ani Kybert-Momjian, Jiaying Liu, Robert C. Hornik

In Tobacco Regulatory Science, Emily Brennan and colleagues, including Robert Hornik, assess the impact of various anti-smoking themes in campaigns targeting youth and young adults. The authors surveyed 13- to 17-year-olds and 18- to 25-year-olds for their responses to 20 different potential campaign themes. The themes were aimed at four behavioral targets: preventing smoking initiation among youth (defined as 13-17 year olds), preventing initiation among young adults (defined as 18-25 year olds), stopping progression to daily smoking among young adults, and encouraging cessation...

A comparative effectiveness education trial for lifestyle health behavior change in African-Americans

Jun. 20, 2017

Chanita Hughes Halbert, Scarlett Bellamy, Vanessa Briggs, Ernestine Delmoor, Joseph Purnell, Rodney Rogers, Benita Weathers, Jerry C. Johnson

In Health Education Research, Chanita Hughes Halbert and colleagues, including Jerry Johnson, compared the effects of an education trial about risk factors for cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) within an African-American community. Participants were randomized to receive either integrated education about shared risk factors between cancer and CVD, or disease-specific education about CVD risk factors only. The authors assessed whether the type of education received affected fruit and vegetable intake or physical activity level. They find that when participants with less than...

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