Disease Prevention / Health Promotion

Interventions, education and incentives that promote healthy behaviors and improve health outcomes.

Association of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation With Overall and Neurologically Favorable Survival After Pediatric Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in the United States

Jun. 22, 2017

Maryam Y. Naim, Rita V. Burke, Bryan F. McNally, Lihai Song, Heather M. Griffis, Robert A. Berg, Kimberly Vellano, David Markenson, Richard N. Bradley, Joseph W. Rossano

In JAMA Pediatrics, Maryam Naim and colleagues, including Joseph Rossano, investigate effects of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The authors analyze data from the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival, and find that out of 3,900 instances of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests, bystander CPR was provided in 1,814. Children who were treated with either conventional bystander CPR or compression-only CPR had higher survival rates and more favorable neurological outcomes than did those who were not treated with CPR....

Economic evaluation of a behavioral intervention versus brief advice for substance use treatment in pregnant women: results from a randomized controlled trial

Jun. 22, 2017

Xiao Xu, Kimberly A. Yonkers, and Jennifer Prah Ruger

In BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, Xiao Xu and colleagues, including Jennifer Ruger, assess the economic impact of motivational enhancement therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy (MET-CBT) among substance-using pregnant women. The study was performed alongside a clinical trial that compared the intervention to brief advice about the risks of substance use and found no significant differences in the outcomes such as drug and alcohol use. As such, the authors conducted a cost minimization analysis, from the perspective of the health system. They found that, while the intervention...

Development of a Patient-centered Outcome Measure for Emergency Department Asthma Patients

Jun. 21, 2017

Margaret E. Samuels-Kalow, Karin V. Rhodes, Mira Henien, Emily Hardy, Thomas Moore, Felicia Wong, Carlos A. Camargo Jr., Caroline T. Rizzo, Cynthia Mollen

In Academic Emergency Medicine, Margaret Samuels-Kalow and colleagues, including Karin Rhodes and Cynthia Mollen, explore patient-reported outcome measures for Emergency Department care among asthma patients.  As existing patient-reported outcome measures have limited applicability to emergency medicine, the authors seek to identify patient-centered concepts specific to emergent asthma care. They completed a three-phase qualitative study, in which adult asthma patients and parents of pediatric asthma patients identified important concepts for post-ED discharge success. These...

Promising Themes for Antismoking Campaigns Targeting Youth and Young Adults

Jun. 20, 2017

Emily Brennan, Laura A. Gibson, Ani Kybert-Momjian, Jiaying Liu, Robert C. Hornik

In Tobacco Regulatory Science, Emily Brennan and colleagues, including Robert Hornik, assess the impact of various anti-smoking themes in campaigns targeting youth and young adults. The authors surveyed 13- to 17-year-olds and 18- to 25-year-olds for their responses to 20 different potential campaign themes. The themes were aimed at four behavioral targets: preventing smoking initiation among youth (defined as 13-17 year olds), preventing initiation among young adults (defined as 18-25 year olds), stopping progression to daily smoking among young adults, and encouraging cessation...

A comparative effectiveness education trial for lifestyle health behavior change in African-Americans

Jun. 20, 2017

Chanita Hughes Halbert, Scarlett Bellamy, Vanessa Briggs, Ernestine Delmoor, Joseph Purnell, Rodney Rogers, Benita Weathers, Jerry C. Johnson

In Health Education Research, Chanita Hughes Halbert and colleagues, including Jerry Johnson, compared the effects of an education trial about risk factors for cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) within an African-American community. Participants were randomized to receive either integrated education about shared risk factors between cancer and CVD, or disease-specific education about CVD risk factors only. The authors assessed whether the type of education received affected fruit and vegetable intake or physical activity level. They find that when participants with less than...

Effect of message congruency on attention and recall in pictorial health warning labels

Jun. 19, 2017

Kristen Lochbuehler, Melissa Mercincavage, Kathy Z. Tang, C Dana Tomlin, Joseph N. Cappella, Andrew A. Strasser

In Tobacco Control, Kristen Lochbuehler and colleagues, including Joseph Cappella, investigate the effect of pictorial health warning label congruency on smokers’ attention and recall of label content. Daily smokers were randomly assigned to view pictorial warning labels (PWLs) where the label’s image and text were either congruent or incongruent in their theme. Participants had their eye movements tracked, and were asked to recall the label content both immediately after exposure and five days later. The authors find that those who viewed PWLs of a congruent theme spent less time...

Young Transgender Women’s Attitudes Toward HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis

Jun. 12, 2017

Sarah M. Wood, Susan Lee, Frances K. Barg, Marne Castillo, Nadia Dowshen

In Journal of Adolescent Health, Sarah Wood and colleagues, including Nadia Dowshen, seek to understand young transgender women’s (YTW) attitudes toward HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in order to improve PrEP uptake in this population. Previous studies have shown that, despite a significantly higher risk for HIV amongst YTW, awareness of and access to PrEP remains disproportionately low. The investigators conducted qualitative interviews focusing on participants’ knowledge, attitudes, and experience with PrEP. Sixty-four percent of participants reported knowledge of PrEP....

Using Active Choice Within the Electronic Health Record to Increase Influenza Vaccination Rates

Apr. 1, 2017

Mitesh S. Patel, Kevin G. Volpp, Dylan S. Small, Craig Wynn, Jingsan Zhu, Lin Yang, Steven Honeywell Jr., Susan C. Day

In the Journal of General Internal Medicine, Mitesh Patel and colleagues, including Kevin Volpp ​and Dylan Small, evaluate the association between an active choice intervention in the electronic health record and changes in influenza vaccination rates. Despite the benefits of influenza vaccination, each year more than half of adults in the U.S. do not receive it. In this study, the “active choice intervention” was a best practice alert in the electronic health record system, which prompted the provider to actively “accept” or “cancel” an order for the influenza vaccine. The study...

Beyond Books: Public Libraries as Partners for Population Health

Nov. 9, 2016

Anna U. Morgan, Roxanne Dupuis, Bernadette D’Alonzo, Andria Johnson, Amy Graves, Kiahana L. Brooks, Autumn McClintock, Heather Klusaritz, Hillary Bogner, Judith A. Long, David Grande, and Carolyn C. Cannuscio

In Health Affairs, Anna Morgan and colleagues, including Judith Long, David Grande and Carolyn Cannusciodiscuss the importance of public libraries in addressing the social determinants of health and improving population health. The qualitative study describes the work of the Healthy Library Initiative, a partnership between the University of Pennsylvania and the Free Library of Philadelphia, which aims at integrating evidence-based health efforts throughout the Free Library’s fifty-four branches. The authors collected information about the Free Library’s latest...

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