Disease Prevention / Health Promotion

Interventions, education and incentives that promote healthy behaviors and improve health outcomes.

Effect of message congruency on attention and recall in pictorial health warning labels

Jun. 19, 2017

Kristen Lochbuehler, Melissa Mercincavage, Kathy Z. Tang, C Dana Tomlin, Joseph N. Cappella, Andrew A. Strasser

In Tobacco Control, Kristen Lochbuehler and colleagues, including Joseph Cappella, investigate the effect of pictorial health warning label congruency on smokers’ attention and recall of label content. Daily smokers were randomly assigned to view pictorial warning labels (PWLs) where the label’s image and text were either congruent or incongruent in their theme. Participants had their eye movements tracked, and were asked to recall the label content both immediately after exposure and five days later. The authors find that those who viewed PWLs of a congruent theme spent less time...

Young Transgender Women’s Attitudes Toward HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis

Jun. 12, 2017

Sarah M. Wood, Susan Lee, Frances K. Barg, Marne Castillo, Nadia Dowshen

In Journal of Adolescent Health, Sarah Wood and colleagues, including Nadia Dowshen, seek to understand young transgender women’s (YTW) attitudes toward HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in order to improve PrEP uptake in this population. Previous studies have shown that, despite a significantly higher risk for HIV amongst YTW, awareness of and access to PrEP remains disproportionately low. The investigators conducted qualitative interviews focusing on participants’ knowledge, attitudes, and experience with PrEP. Sixty-four percent of participants reported knowledge of PrEP....

Using Active Choice Within the Electronic Health Record to Increase Influenza Vaccination Rates

Apr. 1, 2017

Mitesh S. Patel, Kevin G. Volpp, Dylan S. Small, Craig Wynn, Jingsan Zhu, Lin Yang, Steven Honeywell Jr., Susan C. Day

In the Journal of General Internal Medicine, Mitesh Patel and colleagues, including Kevin Volpp ​and Dylan Small, evaluate the association between an active choice intervention in the electronic health record and changes in influenza vaccination rates. Despite the benefits of influenza vaccination, each year more than half of adults in the U.S. do not receive it. In this study, the “active choice intervention” was a best practice alert in the electronic health record system, which prompted the provider to actively “accept” or “cancel” an order for the influenza vaccine. The study...

What Pertussis Mortality Rates Make Maternal Acellular Pertussis Immunization Cost-Effective in Low- and Middle-Income Countries? A Decision Analysis

Dec. 1, 2016

Louise B. Russell, Sri Ram Pentakota, Cristiana Maria Toscano, Ben Cosgriff, Anushua Sinha

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Despite longstanding infant vaccination programs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), pertussis continues to cause deaths in the youngest infants. A maternal monovalent acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine, in development, could prevent many of these deaths. We estimated infant pertussis mortality rates at which maternal vaccination would be a cost-effective use of public health resources in LMICs.

Methods: We developed a decision model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness...

Beyond Books: Public Libraries as Partners for Population Health

Nov. 9, 2016

Anna U. Morgan, Roxanne Dupuis, Bernadette D’Alonzo, Andria Johnson, Amy Graves, Kiahana L. Brooks, Autumn McClintock, Heather Klusaritz, Hillary Bogner, Judith A. Long, David Grande, and Carolyn C. Cannuscio

In Health Affairs, Anna Morgan and colleagues, including Judith Long, David Grande and Carolyn Cannusciodiscuss the importance of public libraries in addressing the social determinants of health and improving population health. The qualitative study describes the work of the Healthy Library Initiative, a partnership between the University of Pennsylvania and the Free Library of Philadelphia, which aims at integrating evidence-based health efforts throughout the Free Library’s fifty-four branches. The authors collected information about the Free Library’s latest...

Recurrent Violent Injury: Magnitude, Risk Factors and Opportunities For Intervention From a Statewide Analysis

Research Brief
Oct. 24, 2016

Recurrent injury is a promising target for prevention, as prior injury is a strong predictor of future violent injury and death. But the incidence of recurrent violent injury, on an area-wide level, is unknown, and the risk factors contributing to it are not well understood. 

Deaths from Unintentional Injury, Homicide, and Suicide During or Within 1 Year of Pregnancy in Philadelphia

Oct. 14, 2016

Pooja K. Mehta, Marcus A. Bachhuber, Roy Hoffman, Sindhu K. Srinivas

In the American Journal of Public Health, Pooja Mehta and colleagues seek to understand the effect of unintentional injuries, suicide, and homicide on pregnancy-associated death. The authors find that about half of of pregnancy-associated deaths - occurring during or within one year of pregnancy - in Philadelphia between 2010 and 2014 were due to unintentional injuries, homicide, or suicide. Of these deaths, more than 50% were directly or indirectly associated with substance use, more than 40% were associated with serious mental illness, and more than 20% were associated with...

Rationale and design of a randomized trial of automated hovering for post myocardial infarction patients: The HeartStrong program

Sep. 22, 2016

Andrea B. Troxel, David A. Asch, Shivan J. Mehta, Laurie Norton, Devon Taylor, Tirza A. Calderon, Raymond Lim, Jingsan Zhu, Daniel M. Kolansky, Brian M. Drachman, Kevin G. Volpp

In the American Heart Journal, Andrea Troxel and colleagues, including Kevin Volpp, David Asch and Shivan Mehta, discuss the rationale and design of the HeartStrong program, a randomized controlled trial aimed at increasing medication adherence among patients with coronary artery disease. This trial features three main innovations: first, it uses behavioral economics concepts such as intermittent feedback, regret aversion and the entertainment value of a daily lottery; second, it automates procedures using new technology such as wireless pill bottles and remote feedback; and third...