Disease Prevention / Health Promotion

Interventions, education and incentives that promote healthy behaviors and improve health outcomes.

Machine Learning Algorithms in Suicide Prevention: Clinician Interpretations as Barriers to Implementation

Apr. 21, 2020

Lily A. Brown, Kathy Benhamou, Alexis M. May, Wenting Mu, Richard Berk

Abstract [from journal]

Objective: Machine learning algorithms in electronic medical records can classify patients by suicide risk, but no research has explored clinicians' perceptions of suicide risk flags generated by these algorithms, which may affect algorithm implementation. The objective of this study was to evaluate clinician perceptions of suicide risk flags.

Methods: Participants (n = 139; 68 with complete data) were mental health clinicians recruited to complete online surveys from October 2018 to April 2019.


Homeless Shelter Entry in the Year After an Emergency Department Visit: Results From a Linked Data Analysis

Apr. 21, 2020

Kelly M. Doran, Eileen Johns, Maryanne Schretzman, Sara Zuiderveen, Marybeth Shinn, Rajneesh Gulati, Ian Wittman, Dennis Culhane, Donna Shelley, Tod Mijanovich

Abstract [from journal]

Study Objective: Housing instability is prevalent among emergency department (ED) patients and is known to adversely affect health. We aim to determine the incidence and timing of homeless shelter entry after an ED visit among patients who are not currently homeless.

Methods: We conducted a random-sample survey of ED patients at an urban public hospital from November 2016 to September 2017. Patients provided identifying information and gave informed consent for us to link their survey data with the New York


Reducing Opioid Use After Endourologic Procedures

Apr. 20, 2020

Juan Serna, Ruchika Talwar, Daniel J. Lee 

Abstract [from journal]

Purpose of Review: Surgeons have played a significant role in the current opioid epidemic through overprescribing practices in the postoperative setting. However, contemporary efforts have helped to decrease opioid excess, particularly in the field of urology. Minimally invasive surgery offers a unique avenue to address overuse of narcotics in the postoperative period given its emphasis on enhanced recovery.

Recent Findings: Historically, the majority of the literature characterizing postoperative opioid use


Depression and Self-care in Older Adults with Multiple Chronic Conditions: A Multivariate Analysis

Barbara J. Riegel, DNSc, RN, FAAN, FAHA
Apr. 13, 2020

Maddalena De Maria, Maria Matarese, Ercole Vellone, Davide Ausili, Barbara Riegel

Abstract [from journal]

Aims: To investigate the relationship between depression and self-care behaviors in older individuals with multimorbidity.

Design: Cross-sectional study. Data were collected between April 2017-June 2019.

Methods: Patients were enrolled from community and outpatient settings and included if they were ≥65 years, affected by heart failure, diabetes mellitus or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and at least another chronic condition. They were excluded if they had dementia and/or cancer


Social Distancing to Slow the U.S. COVID-19 Epidemic: An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis

Apr. 8, 2020

Mark J. Siedner, Guy Harling, Zahra Reynolds, Rebecca F. Gilbert, Atheendar Venkataramani, Alexander C. Tsai

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Social distancing measures to address the U.S. COVID-19 epidemic may have significant health, social, and economic impacts.

Objective: To estimate the mean change in state-level COVID-19 epidemic growth before versus after the implementation of statewide social distancing measures.

Design: Interrupted time-series analysis.

Setting: United States. Measurements: Our primary exposure was time in relation to implementation of the first statewide social...

Self-Reported Vision and Hallucinations in Older Adults: Results from Two Longitudinal US Health Surveys

Allison Willis, MD
Apr. 7, 2020

Ali G. Hamedani, Dylan P. Thibault, Judy A. SheaAllison W. Willis

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Vision loss may be a risk factor for hallucinations, but this has not been studied at the population level.

Methods: To determine the association between self-reported vision loss and hallucinations in a large community-based sample of older adults, we performed a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of two large, nationally representative US health surveys: the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Visual impairment and hallucinations were


The Impact of Paid Family Leave in the United States on Birth Outcomes and Mortality in the First Year of Life

Scott Lorch, MD, MSCE
Apr. 5, 2020

Diana Montoya‐Williams, Molly Passarella, Scott A. Lorch 

Abstract [from journal]

Objective: To evaluate the effect of paid family leave in California on statewide rates of preterm birth, low birthweight, postneonatal mortality, and overall infant mortality.

Data Sources: Live birth and death certificates from all in-hospital deliveries occurring in California (state exposed to the family leave policy) and two unexposed states (Missouri and Pennsylvania) from 1999 to 2008 (n = 6 164 203).

Study Design: We used a difference-in-differences approach to compare rates of


Investigating the (In)visible: Piloting an Integrated Methodology to Explore Multiple Forms of Violence

Mar. 30, 2020

Kalen Flynn, Brenda Mathias, Douglas J. Wiebe

Abstract [from journal]

Traditional research methods typically utilize singular forms of data to conceptualize and measure violence. Methodologies designed to examine the impact of violence have been structured to primarily examine the interpersonal. However, scholars in community psychology, anthropology, and social work, and so forth, have recognized additional dimensions of violence that impact marginalized populations by restricting agency and negatively affecting physical and mental health, such as structural violence. Given growing interest in multiple forms of


Family Characteristics in Sex Communication and Social Support: Implications for Emerging Adult Men Who Have Sex with Men's PrEP Engagement

José Bauermeister, Penn Nursing School
Mar. 28, 2020

Dalmacio D. Flores, Steven P. Meanley, Sarah M. Wood, Jose A. Bauermeister 

Abstract [from journal]

While emerging adulthood (ages 18-25) is marked by increased independence from parents, parental support remains a strong correlate of positive sexual health outcomes for heterosexual youth. With the emergence of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), few studies have examined the potential for parent-child sex communication and PrEP adoption among emerging adult men who have sex with men (MSM). We aimed to describe the extent to which parents/family characteristics play supportive roles in emerging adult MSM's current PrEP use. PrEP-indicated participants


Prevalence of Abuse and Additional Injury in Young Children With Rib Fractures as Their Presenting Injury

Joanne Wood, MD
Mar. 19, 2020

Brian Brennan, Katherine M. Henry, Ana Altaffer, Joanne N. Wood 

Abstract [from journal]

Objective: The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of (a) additional injuries, (b) abuse as determined by a standardized scale, and (c) reports to child protective services (CPS) among children younger than 5 years in whom a rib fracture was the first presenting injury concerning for abuse.

Methods: A retrospective study of children younger than 5 years diagnosed with rib fractures at a tertiary pediatric hospital between 2007 and 2018 was performed. Children in motor vehicle crashes


Mortality Trends around the One-Year Survival Mark after Heart, Liver, and Lung Transplantation in the United States

Mar. 13, 2020

Ashwin S. Nathan, Catherine Blebea, Paula Chatterjee, Arwin Thomasson, Joshua M. Diamond, Peter W. Groeneveld, Jay Giri, Hilary J. Goldberg, Andrew M. Courtwright

Abstract [from journal]

Introduction: One-year post-transplant survival is a significant quality measure for solid organ transplant programs in the United States. It is not known whether the use of this metric is associated with changes in life-sustaining clinical practices that would delay mortality for solid organ recipients until just beyond the one-year time point.

Methods: We compared trends in mortality in the time period immediately preceding the one-year post-transplant mark compared to the period immediately after using


Long-Term Outcomes And Quality Of Life Of Patients With Hirschsprung Disease: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis

Mar. 12, 2020

Ying Dai, Yongfang Deng, Yan Lin, Runxian Ouyang, Le Li 

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Advances in surgical techniques and perioperative care have improved the short- and mid-term postoperative outcomes of patients with Hirschsprung disease (HD). However, the long-term outcomes of these patients (older than 10 years) have not been fully investigated. The aim of this systematic review is to clarify the prevalence of long-term outcomes and the quality of life of these patients.

Methods: PubMed,...