Disease Prevention / Health Promotion

Interventions, education and incentives that promote healthy behaviors and improve health outcomes.

Effect of a Financial Incentive for Colorectal Cancer Screening Adherence on the Appropriateness of Colonoscopy Orders

May. 18, 2016

Thomas B. Morland, Marie Synnestvedt, Steven Honeywell Jr, Feifel Yang, Katrina Armstrong, Carmen Guerra

Abstract: Performance incentives for preventive care may encourage inappropriate testing, such as cancer screening for patients with short life expectancies. Defining screening colonoscopies for patients with a >50% 4-year mortality risk as inappropriate, the authors performed a pre-post analysis assessing the effect of introducing a cancer screening incentive on the proportion of screening colonoscopy orders that were inappropriate. Among 2078 orders placed by 23 attending physicians in 4 academic general internal medicine practices, only 0.6% (n = 6/1057) of screening colonoscopy...

Gender of the Clinician, Child, and Guardian and the Association With Receipt of Routine Adolescent Vaccines

May. 17, 2016

Laura Johnson Faherty, Benjamin French, Alexander Fiks

In the Journal of Adolescent Health, Laura Johnson Faherty and colleagues, including Benjamin French and Alexander Fiks, investigate the relationship of the gender of the clinician, child and guardian to the child’s receipt of human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine compared to tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) and meningococcal dose 1 (MCV4) vaccines. Faherty and colleagues used electronic health record data from visits by adolescents to 27 primary care practices from 2009 to 2014 and stratified visits by type (preventive/acute). Adolescents were more likely to be...

The Health Status and Well-Being of Low-Resource, Housing-Unstable, Single-Parent Families Living in Violent Neighborhoods in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

May. 11, 2016

Sara Jacoby, Laura Tach, Terry Guerra, Douglas Wiebe, Therese Richmond

In Health and Social Care, Sara Jacoby and colleagues, including Terry Guerra, Douglas Wiebe, and Therese Richmond, investigate the health and well-being of single-parent families in public housing, and living in violent neighborhoods. The authors designed a two-phase, mixed methods study: in phase 1, data collected using standardized health status instruments were used to describe the health of the participating families in comparison to population norms; in phase 2, daily activity mapping, surveys and interviews of parents and children were collected to assess how these family...

Clinical Decision Support Tool for Parental Tobacco Treatment in Primary Care

Apr. 22, 2016

Brian Jenssen, Tyra Byrant-Stephens, Frank Leone, Robert Grundmeier, Alexander Fiks

In Pediatrics, Brian Jenssen and colleagues, including Frank Leone and Alexander Fiks, evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention to help primary care pediatricians provide smoking cessation treatment to parents/caregivers who smoke. The authors created a clinical decision support tool, embedded it in the electronic health record, and evaluated its use and clinical impact. Participating clinicians, at an urban primary care center, received training in smoking cessation counseling, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) prescribing, referring to an adult treatment program and use of...

Built Environment Assessment: Multidisciplinary Perspectives

Apr. 19, 2016

Karen Glanz, Susan Handy, Kathryn Henderson, Sandy Slater, Erica Davis, Lisa Powell

In SSM Population Health, Karen Glanz and colleagues examine how different disciplinary perspectives can contribute to environmental context-based assessment related to obesity.  The authors also make recommendations for encouraging effective advances in built-environment assessment. A multidisciplinary team of experts convened in 2013 to discuss how their respective disciplines can collaborate to integrate environmental assessment to prevent obesity. There has been significant progress in collaboration across key disciplines that contribute to studies of built environments and...

Impact of State Ignition Interlock Laws on Alcohol-Involved Crash Deaths in the United States

Apr. 13, 2016

Elinore Kaufman, Douglas Wiebe

In the American Journal of Public Health, Elinore Kaufman and Douglas Wiebe investigate the impact of universal ignition interlock requirements on car crash deaths involving alcohol. Ignition interlocks use breath-analysis technology to prevent intoxicated drivers from taking the wheel. The authors analyzed data from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration for 1999 to 2013. They compared alcohol-related car crash deaths in the 18 states with universal interlock requirements to the 32 states without them. They find that in states that require universal ignition...

Habit formation in children: Evidence from incentives for healthy eating

Mar. 14, 2016

George Loewenstein, Joseph Price, Kevin Volpp

In the Journal of Health Economics, George Loewenstein and colleagues, including Kevin Volpp, examine the role of incentives in promoting healthy eating behaviors in children. The investigators conducted a field experiment at 40 elementary schools involving 8,000 children and 400,000 child-day observations, which tested whether providing short-run incentives can create habit formation in children. Over a 3- or 5-week period, students received an incentive (a token worth $0.25 that could be used at school store, carnival or book fair) for eating a serving of fruits or vegetables...