Risk Communication

The exchange of information about the probability and consequences of adverse events, and how these risks are perceived and managed.

Making The News: Victim Characteristics Associated With Media Reporting On Firearm Injury

Elinore Kaufman, U of Penn
Oct. 4, 2020

Elinore J. Kaufman, Jesse E. Passman, Sara F. JacobyDaniel N. Holena, Mark J. Seamon, Jim MacMillan, Jessica H. Beard

Abstract [from journal]

Firearm injury is a public health crisis in the United States. Selective media coverage may contribute to incomplete public understanding of firearm injury. To better understand how firearm injury is communicated to the public, we analyzed media coverage of intentional, interpersonal shootings in 3 U.S. cities. We hypothesized that multiple shootings and fatal shootings would be more likely to make the news, as would shootings affecting children, women, and white individuals. We compared police department data on shootings to media

...

The Youth Firearm Risk And Safety Tool (Youth-First): Psychometrics And Validation Of A Gun Attitudes And Violence Exposure Assessment Tool

Oct. 1, 2020

Cheryl Beseler, Kimberly J. Mitchell, Lisa M. Jones, Heather A. Turner, Sherry Hamby, Roy Wade Jr.

Abstract [from journal]

This study reports on the development of a comprehensive assessment of exposure to guns and gun-related violence for evaluating the risk of gun-related trauma. Gun access, gun attitudes, gun safety education, and exposure to gun violence were measured. Participants were 630 youth, aged 2-17. Youth, ages 10-17, completed a self-report survey and caregivers of young children, ages 2-9, completed the survey as a proxy for that child. The youth were from urban (n = 286) and rural (n = 344) areas. Factor analysis, item response theory,

...

Pulmonary Complications In Trauma: Another Bellwether For Failure To Rescue?

Sep. 19, 2020

Dane Scantling, Justin Hatchimonji, Elinore Kaufman, Ruiying Xiong, Wei Yang, Daniel N. Holena

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Pulmonary complications are the most common adverse event after injury and second greatest cause of failure to rescue (death after pulmonary complications). It is not known whether readily accessible trauma center data can be used to stratify center-level performance for various complications. Performance variation between trauma centers would allow sharing of best practices among otherwise similar hospitals. We hypothesized that high-, average-, and low-performing centers for pulmonary complication and

...

Gaps in the Use of Long-Acting Opioids Within Intervals of Consecutive Days Among Cancer Outpatients Using Electronic Pill Caps

Salima Meghani, RN, PhD, Penn Nursing School researcher
Sep. 16, 2020

Salimah H. Meghani, Amelia L. Persico, Jeffrey Fudin, George J. Knafl

Abstract [from journal]

Objective: This study describes individual cancer patients’ nonuse of extended-release or long-acting (ER/LA) opioids, including periods of gap between opioid doses taken.

Design: Secondary analysis of a three-month observational study of prescribed ER/LA opioids monitored using electronic pill caps.

Setting: Two outpatient oncology clinics of a large health system in the Mid-Atlantic region.

Participants: Inclusion was based on self-identified African Americans and...

HIV and Suicide Risk

Sep. 14, 2020

In recent years, remarkable achievements in HIV testing and antiretroviral therapies have improved the detection, management, and care of persons living with HIV (PLWH). In the 1980s and 90s, patients with HIV infection faced a devastating prognosis. But now, with proper medications and support, PLWH can enjoy long and fulfilling lives. Thus, when the topic of suicide among PLWH is raised, many physicians are surprised. They often ask me, “wasn’t suicide an issue of a time before we had access to antiretroviral therapies?”

Stay-At-Home Orders And Second Waves: A Graphical Exposition

Sep. 10, 2020

Kent A. Smetters

Abstract [from journal]

Integrated epidemiological-economics models have recently appeared to study optimal government policy, especially stay-at-home orders (mass "quarantines"). But these models are challenging to interpret due to the lack of closed-form solutions. This note provides an intuitive and graphical explanation of optimal quarantine policy. To be optimal, a quarantine requires "the cavalry" (e.g., mass testing, strong therapeutics, or a vaccine) to arrive just in time, not too early or too late. The graphical explanation accommodates numerous

...

Know Your Epidemic, Know Your Response: Early perceptions of COVID-19 And Self-Reported Social Distancing In The United States

Hans-Peter Kohler, PhD
Sep. 4, 2020

Alberto Ciancio, Fabrice Kämpfen, Iliana V. Kohler, Daniel Bennett, Wändi Bruine de Bruin, Jill Darling, Arie Kapteyn, Jürgen Maurer, Hans-Peter Kohler 

Abstract [from journal]

As COVID-19 is rapidly unfolding in the United States, it is important to understand how individuals perceive the health and economic risks of the pandemic. In the absence of a readily available medical treatment, any strategy to contain the virus in the US will depend on the behavioral response of US residents. In this paper, we study individual's perceptions on COVID-19 and social distancing during the week of March 10-16, 2020, a week when COVID-19 was officially declared to be a pandemic by WHO and when new infections in the US

...

Harnessing Implementation Science To Optimize Harm Prevention In Critically Ill Children: A Pilot Study Of Bedside Nurse CLABSI Bundle Performance In The Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

Aug. 17, 2020

Charlotte Z. Woods-Hill, Kelly Papili, Eileen Nelson, Kathryn Lipinski, Judy SheaRinad BeidasMeghan Lane-Fall

Abstract [from journal]

Objectives: Central-line associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) is associated with increased mortality, morbidity, and cost in hospitalized children. An evidence-based bundle of care can decrease CLABSI, but bundle compliance is imperfect. We explored factors impacting bundle performance in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) by bedside nurses.

Methods: Single-center cross sectional electronic survey of PICU bedside nurses in an academic tertiary care center; using the COM-B (

...

Partisan Polarization and Resistance to Elite Messages: Results From Survey Experiments on Social Distancing

Aug. 17, 2020

Syon P. Bhanot, Daniel J. Hopkins
 

Abstract [from journal]

COVID-19 compelled government officials in the U.S. and elsewhere to institute social distancing policies, shuttering much of the economy. At a time of low trust and high polarization, Americans may only support such disruptive policies when recommended by same-party politicians. A related concern is that some may resist advice from “elite” sources such as government officials or public health experts. We test these possibilities using novel data from two online surveys with embedded experiments conducted with approximately 2,000 Pennsylvania

...

Suicide Risk Among Persons Living With HIV

Aug. 3, 2020

Lily A. Brown, Ifrah Majeed, Wenting Mu, Jesse McCann, Stephen Durborow, Song Chen, Michael B. Blank

Abstract [from journal]

Persons living with HIV (PLWH) are significantly more likely to die by suicide compared to the general population. This is the first study to examine the impact of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), insomnia, and substance use disorders on suicidal ideation/behavior among PLWH using electronic medical record (EMR) data. We also evaluated the mutual influence of interactions between PTSD and substance use disorders on suicide risk, consistent with the substance abuse, violence exposure, and HIV/AIDS

...

Pages