This Issue Brief summarizes two studies that use comprehensive, longitudinal data from one state to assess the demographic, geographic, and professional factors that affect EMS performance.
This Issue Brief summarizes the problem, describes ongoing governmental efforts to influence the process, and suggests changes in regulatory science and translational medicine that may promote more successful development of safe and effective therapeutics.
The application of behavioral economics to health and health care has captured the imagination of policymakers across the political spectrum. The idea is that many people are irrational in predictable ways, and that this both contributes to unhealthy behaviors like smoking and holds one of the keys to changing those behaviors. Because health care costs continue to increase, and a substantial portion of costs are incurred because of unhealthy behaviors, employers and insurers have great interest in using financial incentives to change behaviors.
This Issue Brief describes the case of a genetic condition for which genetic screening of family members is clearly useful, and just as clearly underused. It explores the barriers to the use of genetic screening and has implications for the future as genetic technologies become more complex and produce more uncertainty.
This Issue Brief summarizes research that directly measures the willingness of dental and medical providers to see publicly-insured children, using research assistants posing as mothers calling for an urgent appointment for their child.
This Issue Brief summarizes a series of studies that assess the impact of public reporting on nursing home quality and on the financial performance of these facilities.
This Issue Brief summarizes evidence from one state about the changing geography of outpatient procedures and the possible risks associated with these changes.
This Issue Brief reports on the experience of one hospital system that used its CPOE to reduce the incidence of a serious drug interaction. This rigorous test of a specific CPOE intervention shows that an electronic alert system can be effective in changing prescribing, but may also have unintended consequences for patient safety.
Treating Viral Respiratory Tract Infections with Antibiotics in Hospitals: No Longer a Case of Mistaken Identity
This Issue Brief investigates antibiotic use in hospitalized adults with a confirmed viral infection, a group of patients that may not benefit from such therapy. Understanding the factors that lead to inappropriate antibiotic use may help change clinical practice and limit antibiotic resistance.
Preventive surgery is associated with reduced cancer risk and mortality in women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations
This Issue Brief summarizes the results of the latest, largest, multinational study on the effects of preventive surgery in these women. The results are consistent with earlier studies and provide strong evidence for the use of preventive surgery as an effective approach to managing this genetic risk.
This Issue Brief summarizes a new study that tracks adults with moderate to severe asthma and explores the association between exposure to community violence and subsequent asthma-related emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations.
In 2004, California became the first state to implement minimum nurse-to-patient staffing requirements inacute care hospitals. It remains the only state to enact such requirements, although at least 18 states have introduced nurse staffing legislation. The goals of the legislation were to reduce nurse workloads, improve recruitment and retention of nurses, and improve quality of care. This Issue Brief summarizes the first comprehensive evaluation of the California mandate in achieving these goals.
This Issue Brief summarizes the evidence about the effects of DTCA, and proposes guidelines for improving the utility of prescription drug advertising.
This Issue Brief summarizes two studies that examine the health implications of foreclosure and reveal a vulnerable population that may benefit from coordinated health and financial services.
This Issue Brief looks at one specialty—obstetrics and gynecology (OB)—and explores whether OB training programs can be distinguished by the quality of care their graduates provide.