Disease Prevention / Health Promotion

Interventions, education and incentives that promote healthy behaviors and improve health outcomes.

Cost-effectiveness of maternal GBS immunization in low-income sub-Saharan Africa

Dec. 14, 2017

Louise B.Russell, Sun-Young Kim, Ben Cosgriff, Sri Ram Pentakota, Stephanie J.Schrag, Ajoke Sobanjo-ter Meulen, Jennifer R.Verani, Anushua Sinha

Abstract [from journal] 

Background: A maternal group B streptococcal (GBS) vaccine could prevent neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Its cost-effectiveness in low-income sub-Saharan Africa, a high burden region, is unknown.

Methods: We used a decision tree model, with Markov nodes to project infants’ lifetimes, to compare maternal immunization delivered through routine antenatal care with no immunization. 37 countries were clustered on the basis of economic and health resources and past


The Short- and Long-Term Effects of Smoking Cessation on Alcohol Consumption

Dec. 1, 2017

In the International Journal of Health Economics and Management, Benjamin Ukert examines short- and long-term effects of quitting smoking on alcohol consumption. Most interventions have focused on reducing either cigarette or alcohol consumption to address the severe health and economic consequences of both risky behaviors, while ignoring how they interact.

To estimate the relationship between smoking and alcohol consumption, the author utilizes data from the Lung Health Study (LHS), a randomized smoking...

Cost-effectiveness of a potential group B streptococcal vaccine for pregnant women in the United States

Oct. 27, 2017

Sun-Young Kim, Chi Nguyen, Louise B.Russell, Sara Tomczyk, Fatimah Abdul-Hakeem, Stephanie J.Schrag, Jennifer R.Verani, Anushua Sinha

Abstract [from journal]

Background: In the U.S., intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) for pregnant women colonized with group B streptococcus (GBS) has reduced GBS disease in the first week of life (early-onset/EOGBS). Nonetheless, GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal sepsis, including 1000 late-onset (LOGBS) cases annually. A maternal vaccine under development could prevent EOGBS and LOGBS.

Methods: Using a decision-analytic model, we compared the public health impact, costs, and


Improving Population Health

Oct. 12, 2017

Many discussions surrounding population health initiatives take place at a very high level, resulting in few tangible action items for stakeholders to address. This was not the case at LDI’s 50th Anniversary Symposium, where the breakout session titled “Strategies to Advance Population Health” proposed new approaches to old challenges. The session focused on ways to integrate clinical and non-clinical services, examined policies promoting health, and encouraged unique partnerships and opportunities for strategic innovation.

Community Health Worker Support For Disadvantaged Patients With Multiple Chronic Diseases: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Research Brief
Aug. 21, 2017

Community health worker interventions hold promise for improving outcomes of low-income patients with multiple chronic diseases.

Active Choice and Financial Incentives to Increase Rates of Screening Colonoscopy – a Randomized Controlled Trial

Jul. 26, 2017

Shivan J. Mehta, Jordyn Feingold, Matthew Vandertuyn, Tess Niewood, Catherine Cox, Chyke A. Doubeni, Kevin G. Volpp, David A. Asch

In Gastroenterology, Shivan Mehta and colleagues, including Chyke Doubeni, Kevin Volpp, and David Asch, examine various behavioral economics approaches to increase uptake for colorectal cancer screening. The authors assigned 2,245 individuals, all employees of a large academic health system, to one of three interventions: an e-mail containing a phone number for scheduling (control), an e-mail with the active choice to opt in or opt out (active choice), or the active choice e-mail plus a $100 incentive (financial incentive). Participants were followed to determine whether they got...

Calorie Underestimation When Buying High-Calorie Beverages in Fast-Food Contexts

Jul. 14, 2017

Rebecca L. Franckle, Jason P. Block, Christina A. Roberto

In American Journal of Public Health, Rebecca Franckle and colleagues, including Christina Roberto, assess calorie estimation, particularly in high-calorie beverages, among adolescents and adults visiting fast-food restaurants. Previous research has shown that people eating at fast-food restaurants underestimate the caloric content of their purchases, but little is known about whether purchasing beverages affects calorie estimates. Because beverages are generally not the central focus of a meal and can be consumed quickly and with little effort, it is possible that people fail to...