Disease Prevention / Health Promotion

Interventions, education and incentives that promote healthy behaviors and improve health outcomes.

Pharmaceutical Side Effects and Mental Health Paradoxes Among Racial-Ethnic Minorities

Feb. 1, 2020

Jason SchnittkerDuy Do

Abstract [from journal]

Sociologists have long struggled to explain the minority mental health paradox: that racial-ethnic minorities often report better mental health than non-Hispanic whites despite social environments that seem less conducive to well-being. Using data from the 2008-2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), this study provides a partial explanation for the paradox rooted in a very different disparity. Evidence from MEPS indicates that non-Hispanic whites consume more pharmaceuticals than racial-ethnic minorities for a wide variety of medical conditions

...

How Psychological Insights can Inform Food Policies to Address Unhealthy Eating Habits

Feb. 1, 2020

Christina A. Roberto

Abstract [from journal]

In this article, insights from psychology and behavioral economics are identified that help explain why it is hard to maintain healthy eating habits in modern food environments. Most eating decisions engage System 1, rather than System 2, processing, making it difficult for people to consistently make healthy choices in food environments that encourage overconsumption of unhealthy foods. The psychological vulnerabilities discussed include emotions and associations mattering more than reason, difficulty processing complex information, present-biased

...

Parents ASSIST (Advancing Supportive and Sexuality-Inclusive Sex Talks): Iterative Development of a Sex Communication Video Series for Parents of Gay, Bisexual, and Queer Male Adolescents

José Bauermeister
Jan. 31, 2020

Dalmacio D. FloresAndre A. Rosario, Keosha T. Bond, Antonia M. VillarruelJose A. Bauermeister

Abstract [from journal]

Effective parent-child sex communication enhances heterosexual youths' efficacy to engage in health promotive behaviors, yet there is scarce research on parent-child sex communication with gay, bisexual, and queer (GBQ) sons during adolescence. Our aim is to describe the development of Parents ASSIST, a web-based series of animated videos for parents of GBQ adolescent males focused on (a) parental education about sexual health topics pertinent to this population's same-sex concerns, (b) modeling of communication skills for parents to broach and

...

Longitudinal Remote Coaching for Implementation of Perinatal Collaborative Care: A Mixed-Methods Analysis

Ian Bennett, MD, PhD
Jan. 30, 2020

Amritha Bhat, Ian M. Bennett, Amy M. Bauer, Rinad S. Beidas, Whitney Eriksen, Frances K. Barg, Rachel Gold, Jürgen Unützer
 

Abstract [from journal]

 The collaborative care model (CoCM) is a multicomponent, team-based integrated behavioral health framework. Its effectiveness in the treatment of perinatal depression is established, but implementation has been limited. The authors used longitudinal remote coaching (LRC) as a novel implementation strategy to support systematic case review in a multistate cluster-randomized trial of CoCM for perinatal depression. They describe LRC for perinatal CoCM in three clinics and use of a mixed-methods analysis of data from LRC feedback forms and interviews

...

The Role of Networks in Racial Disparities in HIV Incidence Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in the United States

José Bauermeister, Penn Nursing School
Jan. 24, 2020

Stephen Bonett, Steven Meanley, Robin Stevens, Bridgette Brawner, José Bauermeister 

Abstract [from journal]

Network factors have been proposed as potential drivers of racial disparities in HIV among Black and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). This review aimed to synthesize the extant literature on networks and racial disparities in HIV among MSM and identify potential directions for future research. We searched databases for peer-reviewed articles published between January 1, 2008 and July 1, 2018. Articles were included if the sample was comprised primarily of racial/ethnic minority MSM and measured one or more network characteristics. (n = 25). HIV

...

Gene Expression Profiles in Children With Suspected Sepsis

Ebbing Lautenbach, MD, MPH, MSCE
Jan. 23, 2020

Fran Balamuth, Elizabeth R. Alpern, Mengyuan Kan, Maya Shumyatcher, Katie Hayes, Ebbing Lautenbach, Blanca E. Himes

Abstract [from journal]

Study Objective: Sepsis recognition is a clinical challenge in children. We aim to determine whether peripheral blood gene expression profiles are associated with pathogen type and sepsis severity in children with suspected sepsis.

Methods: This was a prospective pilot observational study in a tertiary pediatric emergency department with a convenience sample of children enrolled. Participants were older than 56 days and younger than 18 years, had suspected sepsis, and had not received broad-spectrum antibiotics

...

"Becoming Myself": How Participants in a Longitudinal Substance Use Disorder Recovery Study Experienced Receiving Continuous Feedback on their Results

Jan. 23, 2020

Thomas Solgaard Svendsen, Jone Bjornestad, Tale Ekeroth Slyngstad, James R. McKay, Aleksander Waagan Skaalevik, Marius Veseth, Christian Moltu, Sverre Nesvaag 

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Being a participant in longitudinal follow-up studies is not commonly a factor considered when investigating useful self-change aspects for individuals attempting recovery from substance use disorder (SUD). This study reports on how ongoing monitoring, and feedback on data results in a longitudinal follow-up study of SUD recovery were perceived by individuals who had achieved long-term abstinence and social recovery.

Methods: Interviewers with first-hand experience with the topic conducted

...

Homeschooling Parents in California: Attitudes, Beliefs and Behaviors Associated with Child's Vaccination Status

Jan. 22, 2020

Salini Mohanty, Caroline M. Joyce, Paul L. Delamater, Nicola P. Klein, Daniel Salmon, Saad B. Omer, Alison M. Buttenheim
 

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Senate Bill 277 (SB277) banned nonmedical exemptions from school-entry vaccination requirements for children attending classroom-based schools in California, but excluded homeschooled children from vaccination requirements. Thus, it was hypothesized that more parents would choose to homeschool to avoid vaccination requirements in response to SB277. There is limited literature on the vaccine attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors among the homeschooling population in the US, despite an overall increase in homeschooling

...

Risk Factors for Falls in Older Adults Experiencing Homelessness: Results from the HOPE HOME Cohort Study

Jan. 21, 2020

Elizabeth Abbs, Rebecca Brown, David Guzman, Lauren Kaplan, Margot Kushel

Abstract [from journal]

Background: More than half of homeless adults are of age ≥ 50 years. Falls are a common cause of morbidity in older adults in the general population. Risk factors for falls in the general population include poor health, alcohol use, and exposure to unsafe environments. Homeless adults aged ≥ 50 have a high prevalence of known risk factors and face additional potential risks.

Objectives: To examine the prevalence of and risk of falling in a cohort of older homeless adults.

Design: 

...

Patient Phenotypes Help Explain Variation in Response to a Social Gamification Weight Loss Intervention

Dec. 26, 2019

Jeffrey Lienert, Mitesh Patel

Abstract [from journal]

Purpose: This study aims to determine latent classes of study participants using baseline characteristics, explore the patterns within the groups, and determine whether the intervention had differential effects on weight loss across the groups.

Design: Secondary analysis of a completed randomized clinical trial.

Setting: Participants in a gamification intervention with social incentives who were recruited as

...

Association of Cognitive Biases with Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Hesitancy: A Cross-Sectional Study

Dec. 20, 2019

Tiffany D. Poares, Alison M. Buttenheim, Avnika B. Amin, Caroline M. Joyce, Rachael M. Porter, Robert A. Bednarczyk, Saad B. Omer

Abstract [from journal]

Given the link between vaccine hesitancy and vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks, it is critical to examine the cognitive processes that contribute to the development of vaccine hesitancy, especially among parents of adolescents. We conducted a secondary analysis of baseline data from a two-phase randomized trial on human papillomavirus to investigate how vaccine hesitancy and intent to vaccinate are associated with six decision-making factors: base rate neglect, conjunction fallacy, sunk cost bias, present bias

...

A Randomized Trial to Encourage Healthy Eating Through Workplace Delivery of Fresh Food

Carolyn Cannuscio, ScD
Dec. 16, 2019

Rachel Feuerstein-Simon, Roxanne Dupuis, Ryan Schumacher, Carolyn C. Cannuscio

Abstract [from journal]

Purpose: This study aimed to increase the consumption of home-cooked meals among employees at a large urban worksite through a fully subsidized Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) program.

Design: Randomized trial.

Setting: Worksite in a large northeast city.

Participants: Employees were recruited through flyers, e-mail listservs, and outreach from departmental

...

Pages