Disease Prevention / Health Promotion

Interventions, education and incentives that promote healthy behaviors and improve health outcomes.

Police Killings and Their Spillover Effects on the Mental Health of Black Americans: A Population-Based, Quasi-Experimental Study

Jul. 2, 2018

Jacob Bor, Atheendar S. Venkataramani, David R Williams, Alexander C. Tsai

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Police kill more than 300 black Americans—at least a quarter of them unarmed—each year in the USA. These events might have spillover effects on the mental health of people not directly affected.

Methods: In this population-based, quasi-experimental study, we combined novel data on police killings with individual-level data from the nationally representative 2013–15 US Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (

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Complexity of the Relationships of Pain, Posttraumatic Stress, and Depression in Combat-Injured Populations: An Integrative Review to Inform Evidence-Based Practice

Jun. 27, 2018

Nicholas A. Giordano, Christine Bader, Therese S. Richmond, Rosemary C. Polomano 

ABSTRACT [FROM JOURNAL]

Background: Understanding the complex interrelationships between combat injuries, physical health, and mental health symptoms is critical to addressing the healthcare needs of wounded military personnel and veterans. The relationship between injury characteristics, pain, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression among combat-injured military personnel is unique to modern conflicts and understudied in the nursing literature.

Aim: This integrative review synthesizes clinical presentations and relationships...

The ‘Warming Effect’ of DACA on American Children

Jun. 4, 2018

New research shows that young citizen children were more likely to receive important social services when their undocumented mothers became eligible for the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program. Providing evidence of the multi-generational spillover effects of immigration policy, this new analysis comes as the U.S.

A Pragmatic Trial of E-Cigarettes, Incentives, and Drugs for Smoking Cessation

Research Brief
May. 25, 2018

In a trial examining five approaches to smoking cessation among over 6,000 U.S. employees, financial incentives combined with free cessation aids were more effective at getting employees to stop smoking than free cessation aids alone. Specifically, the most effective intervention (free cessation aids plus $600 in redeemable funds) helped 2.9% of participants stop smoking through six months after their target quit date; this rate jumped to 12.7% among participants who actively engaged in the trial and were more motivated to quit. For employees with access to usual care (information and a free motivational text messaging service), offering free cessation aids or electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) did not help them quit smoking.

Conditional Admission, Religious Exemption Type, and Nonmedical Vaccine Exemptions in California Before and After a State Policy Change

May. 25, 2018

Alison M. Buttenheim, Malia Jones, Caitlin Mckown, Daniel Salmon, Saad B. Omerd

Abstract [from journal]

Recent measles and pertussis outbreaks in the US have focused national attention on state laws governing exemptions from mandatory vaccines for school entry. After several years of increases in nonmedical exemptions in California, the state assembly passed Assembly Bill 2109 in 2012, making

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Violence in Rural, Suburban, and Urban Schools in Pennsylvania

May. 10, 2018

Kalen Flynn, Catherine C. McDonald, ...

Abstract [from journal]

School violence is a public health issue with direct and collateral consequences that has academic and social impacts for youth. School violence is often considered a uniquely urban problem, yet more research is needed to understand how violence in rural and suburban schools may be similar or different from urban counterparts. Using school violence data from a state with urban, suburban, and rural counties, we explored the landscape of school violence in Pennsylvania (PA) through mapping, descriptive statistics, and factor analysis. Results show school...

Association of Race and Socioeconomic Status with Automatic External Defibrillator Training Prevalence in the United States

May. 10, 2018

D. Daphne Owen, Shaun K. McGovern, Andrew Murray, Marion Leary, Marina del Rios, Raina M.Merchant, Benjamin S.Abella, David Dutwin, Audrey L. Blewer...

Abstract [from journal]

Aim of the Study: Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) improve survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), however bystander use remains low. Limited AED training may contribute to infrequent use of these devices, yet no studies have assessed AED training nationally. Given previously documented racial disparities among Latinos in CPR provision and OHCA outcomes, we hypothesized that racial and socioeconomic differences exist in AED training, with Whites having increased training compared to Latinos and higher

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Attitudes on Technological, Social, and Behavioral Economic Strategies to Reduce Cellphone Use While Driving in Teens

Apr. 25, 2018

Abstract [from journal]

Objective: The majority of U.S. teens admit to handheld cellphone use while driving, an increasingly common cause of crashes. Attitudes towards novel cellphone applications and settings that block use while driving are poorly understood, potentially limiting uptake. We examined teens' willingness to reduce cellphone use while driving and perceptions of potential strategies to limit this behavior.

Methods: Teen drivers (n = 153) aged 16-17 who owned smartphones and admitted to texting while driving completed an online...

Simulated Driving Performance, Self-Reported Driving Behaviors, and Mental Health Symptoms in Adolescent Novice Drivers

Apr. 9, 2018

Catherine C. McDonald, Marilyn S. Sommers, Jamison D. Fargo, Thomas Seacrist, Thomas Power

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Risky driving behaviors contribute to adolescent injury, disability, and death, yet little is known about how mental health factors are associated with adolescent driving behaviors.

Objectives: The purpose of the research was to determine the association of risky driving behaviors and mental health symptoms in novice adolescent drivers.

Methods: We recruited a convenience sample (n = 60) of adolescents to complete an assessment of driving performance errors in a high-fidelity...

Does Spending Time Outdoors Reduce Stress? A Review of Real-Time Stress Response to Outdoor Environments

Apr. 4, 2018

Michelle C. Kondo, Sara F. Jacoby, Eugenia C. South

Abstract [from journal]

Everyday environmental conditions impact human health. One mechanism underlying this relationship is the experience of stress. Through systematic review of published literature, we explore how stress has been measured in real-time non-laboratory studies of stress responses to deliberate exposure to outdoor environments. The types of exposures evaluated in this review include: nature viewing, outdoor walks, outdoor exercise and gardening. We characterize study design, modalities of stress measurements, and statistical estimates of effect and significance....

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