Disease Prevention / Health Promotion

Interventions, education and incentives that promote healthy behaviors and improve health outcomes.

Sources Of Information For Learning And Decision-Making In Men With Localized Prostate Cancer

Sumedha Chhatre
Oct. 1, 2020

Sumedha Chhatre, Marsha N. Wittink, Joseph J. Gallo, Ravishankar Jayadevappa

Abstract [from journal]

Information seeking is essential for effective patient-centered decision-making. However, prostate cancer patients report a gap between information needed and information received. The importance of different information sources for treatment decision remains unclear. Thus, using the Comprehensive Model of Health Information (CMIS) framework, we assessed the antecedent factors, information carrier factors, and information-seeking activities in localized prostate cancer patients. Data were collected via semistructured one-on-one,

...

A Contemporary Analysis Of Delayed Diagnoses After Traumatic Injury: The Role Of Operative Therapy

Sep. 29, 2020

Justin S. Hatchimonji, Catherine E. Sharoky, Elinore J. Kaufman, Lucy W. Ma, Anna E. Garcia Whitlock, Brian P. Smith, Daniel N. Holena

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Factors associated with delayed injury diagnosis (DID) have been examined, but incompletely researched.

Methods: We evaluated demographics, mechanism, and measures of mental status and injury severity among 10 years' worth of adult trauma patients at our center for association with DID in a multivariable regression model. Descriptions of DID injuries were reviewed to highlight characteristics of these injuries.

Results: We included 13 509 patients, 89 (0.7

...

Jobs For People With Mental Health Conditions: Trends And Prospects

Morgan Shields
Sep. 23, 2020

Richard G. Frank, Sherry A. M. Glied, Morgan Shields

Abstract [from journal]

Objective: For individuals with serious mental illness, work can play an important role in improving quality of life and community integration. Since the 1960s, demand has shifted away from routine cognitive (e.g., clerical work) and manual skills (warehouse picking and packing) toward nonroutine analytical (computer coding), interpersonal (nursing), and manual skills (home health attendant). This study aimed to determine whether individuals with serious mental illness are likely to hold the types of jobs that are in

...

Dementia Is Associated With Earlier Mortality For Men And Women In The United States

Sep. 19, 2020

Lindsay White, Paul Fishman, Anirban Basu, Paul K. Crane, Eric B. Larson, Norma B. Coe

Abstract [from journal]

Objectives: Sociodemographic trends in the United States may influence future dementia-associated mortality, yet there is little evidence about their potential impact. Our study objective was to estimate the effect of dementia on survival in adults stratified by sex, education, and marital status. 

Methods: Using survey data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) linked to Medicare claims from 1991 to 2012, we identified a retrospective cohort of adults with at least one International

...

Political Partisanship Influences Behavioral Responses To Governors' Recommendations For COVID-19 Prevention In The United States

Sep. 15, 2020

Guy Grossman, Soojong Kim, Jonah M. Rexer, Harsha Thirumurthy

Abstract [from journal]

Voluntary physical distancing is essential for preventing the spread of COVID-19. We assessed the role of political partisanship in individuals' compliance with physical distancing recommendations of political leaders using data on mobility from a sample of mobile phones in 3,100 counties in the United States during March 2020, county-level partisan preferences, information about the political affiliation of state governors, and the timing of their communications about COVID-19 prevention. Regression analyses examined how political

...

HIV and Suicide Risk

Sep. 14, 2020

In recent years, remarkable achievements in HIV testing and antiretroviral therapies have improved the detection, management, and care of persons living with HIV (PLWH). In the 1980s and 90s, patients with HIV infection faced a devastating prognosis. But now, with proper medications and support, PLWH can enjoy long and fulfilling lives. Thus, when the topic of suicide among PLWH is raised, many physicians are surprised. They often ask me, “wasn’t suicide an issue of a time before we had access to antiretroviral therapies?”

Effect Of Neighborhood Food Environment And Socioeconomic Status On Serum Phosphorus Level For Patients On Chronic Dialysis

Sep. 11, 2020

Vishnu S. Potluri, Deirdre Sawinski, Vicky Tam, Justine Shults, Jordana B. Cohen, Douglas J. Wiebe, Siddharth P. Shah, Jeffrey S. Berns and Peter P. Reese

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Elevated blood phosphorus levels are common and associated with a greater risk of death for patients receiving chronic dialysis. Phosphorus-rich foods are prevalent in the American diet, and low-phosphorus foods, including fruits and vegetables, are often less available in areas with more poverty. The relative contributions of neighborhood food availability and socioeconomic status to phosphorus control in patients receiving dialysis are unknown.

Methods: Using longitudinal data

...

Universal Testing For SARS-CoV-2 In Two Philadelphia Hospitals: Carrier Prevalence And Symptom Development Over Two Weeks

Sep. 11, 2020

Whitney R. Bender, Adi Hirshberg, Paulina Coutifaris, Alexandra L. Acker, Sindhu K. Srinivas 

Abstract [from journal]

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has challenged obstetric care providers. Universal testing on labor and delivery units has been implemented by many hospitals to ensure patient and staff safety. Asymptomatic carrier rates are expected to vary based on geographic differences in disease prevalence, although differences within the same city have not previously been reported. Additionally, clinical follow-up of women testing negative for SARS-CoV-2 during obstetric hospitalization have not

...

Impact Of Hospitalization And Medication Switching On Post-Discharge Adherence To Oral Anticoagulants In Atrial Fibrillation Patients

Allison Willis, MD
Sep. 1, 2020

Thanh Phuong Pham Nguyen, Yong Chen, Dylan Thibault, Charles E. Leonard, Sean Hennessy, Allison Willis

Abstract [from journal

Background: Adherence to chronic medications remains poor in practice. There is limited evidence on how hospitalization affects post-discharge adherence to oral anticoagulants (OACs) in individuals with atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of this study is to examine the impact of hospitalization and medication switching on post-discharge adherence to OACs in the AF population.

Methods: A quasi-experimental pre-post observational study was conducted using United States commercial insurance

...

A Text Messaging Intervention With Financial Incentive For Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

Aug. 30, 2020

Tara Kaushal, Lorraine E. Levitt Katz, Janet Joseph, Michelle Marowitz, Knashawn H. Morales, Daniel Atkins, Dean Ritter, Reid Simon, Lori Laffel, Terri H. Lipman

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have higher hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) levels than others. In general, adolescents engage with text messaging (TM) and financial incentives, both associated with improved diabetes outcomes. This study aimed to assess the impact of a TM intervention with financial incentives on self-care behaviors and HbA1c.

Methods: A six-month randomized controlled trial compared MyDiaText™, a TM education and support application, with standard care. The sample

...

Association Of Age, Sex, Race, And Geographic Region With Variation Of The Ratio Of Basal Cell To Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinomas In The United States

Jeremy Etzkorn
Aug. 26, 2020

Tess M. Lukowiak, Leora Aizman, Allison Perz, Christopher J. Miller, Joseph F. Sobanko, Thuzar M. Shin, Cerrene N. Giordano, H. William Higgins 2nd, Jeremy R. Etzkorn

Abstract [from journal]

Importance: Defining which populations are affected by basal cell carcinoma (BCC) vs cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) may inform targeted public health strategies. Incidence of BCC and cSCC is not reported to national cancer registries, but claims data for the treatment of BCC and cSCC provide insights into the epidemiology of keratinocyte carcinoma.

Objective: To define differences in the ratio of BCC to cSCC in adults (age, ≥18 years) in a large database of patients with commercial

...

Partisan Polarization and Resistance to Elite Messages: Results From Survey Experiments on Social Distancing

Aug. 17, 2020

Syon P. Bhanot, Daniel J. Hopkins
 

Abstract [from journal]

COVID-19 compelled government officials in the U.S. and elsewhere to institute social distancing policies, shuttering much of the economy. At a time of low trust and high polarization, Americans may only support such disruptive policies when recommended by same-party politicians. A related concern is that some may resist advice from “elite” sources such as government officials or public health experts. We test these possibilities using novel data from two online surveys with embedded experiments conducted with approximately 2,000 Pennsylvania

...

COVID-19 Outbreak Among Adolescents At An Inpatient Behavioral Health Hospital

Polina Krass
Aug. 11, 2020

Polina Krass, Charles Zimbrick-Rogers, Chioma Iheagwara, Carol A. Ford, Michele Calderoni

Abstract [from journal]

Purpose: We report on a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak among adolescents at an inpatient behavioral health facility that was identified within 5 weeks of known viral transmission in the surrounding community.

Methods: Clinical records were reviewed for all inpatients aged <18 years with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 between March 23 and April 21, 2020.

Results: A total of 19 COVID-19-positive patients aged 11-17 years were identified. Patients most

...

Pages