Disease Prevention / Health Promotion

Interventions, education and incentives that promote healthy behaviors and improve health outcomes.

In-Person Outreach And Telemedicine In Liver And Intestinal Transplant: A Survey Of National Practices, Impact Of COVID-19 And Areas Of Opportunity

Aug. 9, 2020

Courtney B. Sherman, Adnan Said, Michael Kriss, Vishnu Potluri, Josh Levitsky, Peter P. ReeseJudy A. SheaMarina Serper

Abstract [from journal]

Little is known about national practices and use of in-person outreach clinics and telemedicine in transplantation. We initially aimed to assess contemporary use of in-person outreach and telemedicine in liver and intestinal transplantation in the U.S. We conducted a national survey of liver and intestinal transplant programs to assess use of outreach and telemedicine from January to March of 2019. Given the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we distributed a second survey wave in April 2020 to assess changes in

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Impact Of COVID-19 Pandemic On STEMI Care: An Expanded Analysis From The United States

Aug. 7, 2020

Santiago Garcia, Larissa Stanberry, Christian Schmidt, Scott Sharkey, Michael Megaly, Mazen S. Albaghdadi, Perwaiz M. Meraj, Ross Garberich, Farouc A. Jaffer, Ada C. Stefanescu Schmidt, Simon R. Dixon, Jeffrey J. Rade, Timothy Smith, Mark Tannenbaum, Jenny Chambers, Frank Aguirre, Paul P. Huang...

Abstract [from journal]

Objective: To evaluate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic migitation measures on of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) care.

Background: We previously reported a 38% decline in cardiac catheterization activations during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic mitigation measures. This study extends our early observations using a larger sample of STEMI programs representative of different US regions with the inclusion of more contemporary data.

Methods: Data from

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Informal and Formal Home Care For Older Adults With Disabilities Increased, 2004-16

Aug. 1, 2020

Courtney H. Van Houtven, R. Tamara Konetzka, Elizabeth Taggert, Norma B. Coe

Abstract [from journal]

Rates of informal home care use among older adults with disabilities increased from 2004 to 2016, such that in 2016 almost three-quarters of these adults received informal home care. Informal care remains the most common source of home care, even though formal home care use grew at almost twice the rate, with a 6-percentage-point increase to 36.9 percent in 2016.

Screening To Identify Signals Of Opioid Drug Interactions Leading To Unintentional Traumatic Injury

Jul. 30, 2020

Charles E. Leonard, Colleen M. Brensinger, Thanh Phuong Pham Nguyen, John R. Horn, Sophie Chung, Warren B. Bilker, Sascha Dublin, Samantha E. Soprano, Ghadeer K. Dawwas, David W. Oslin, Douglas J. Wiebe, Sean Hennessy

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Efforts to minimize harms from opioid drug interactions may be hampered by limited evidence on which drugs, when taken concomitantly with opioids, result in adverse clinical outcomes.

Objective: To identify signals of opioid drug interactions by identifying concomitant medications (precipitant drugs) taken with individual opioids (object drugs) that are associated with unintentional traumatic injury DESIGN: We conducted pharmacoepidemiologic screening of Optum Clinformatics Data

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In-Utero Determinants Of Adult Depression: Evidence From The 1918 Flu Pandemic

Jason S. Schnittker, PhD
Jul. 30, 2020

Jason Schnittker

Abstract [from journal]

Social scientists have dealt only glancing with potential in-utero determinants of mental health. This study looks at the enduring consequences of gestational exposure to the 1918 flu pandemic for adult depression. It does so using data collected in the first wave of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1971-1975), corresponding to when those exposed in-utero were in their early to mid-50s. The results indicate very strong effects of in-utero exposure on depression. These effects are only found, however, among men.

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There's A Problem With The Problem List: Incongruence Of Patient Problem Information Across The Home Care Admission

Jul. 28, 2020

Paulina S. Sockolow, Kathryn H. Bowles, Natasha B. Le, Sheryl Potashnik, Yushi Yang, Carl Pankok Jr, Claire Champion, Ellen J. Bass

Abstract [from journal]

Objectives: Illustrate patterns of patient problem information received and documented across the home health care (HHC) admission process and offer practice, policy, and health information technology recommendations to improve information transfer.

Design: Observational field study.

Setting and participants: Three diverse HHC agencies using different commercial point-of-care electronic health records (EHRs). Six nurses per agency each admitted 2 patients (36 total).

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Reducing Paediatric Overweight And Obesity Through Motivational Interviewing: Study Protocol For A Randomised Controlled Trial In The AAP PROS Research Network

Alexander G. Fiks, MD, MSCE
Jul. 28, 2020

Margaret E. Wright, Emerson Delacroix, Kendrin R. Sonneville, Shannon Considine, Tim Proctor, Jennifer Steffes, Donna Harris, Laura P. Shone, Heide Woo, Roger Vaughan, Robert W. Grundmeier, Alexander G. Fiks, Melissa S. Stockwell, Ken Resnicow

Abstract [from journal]

Introduction: Primary care remains an underused venue for prevention and management of paediatric overweight and obesity. A prior trial demonstrated a significant impact of paediatrician/nurse practitioner (Ped/NP)-and registered dietitian (RD)-delivered motivational interviewing (MI) on child body mass index (BMI). The study described here will test the effectiveness of an enhanced version of this primary care-based MI counselling intervention on child BMI.

Methods and analysis: This cluster

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Sex-Based Differences In Screening And Recognition Of Pre-diabetes And Type 2 Diabetes In Pediatric Primary Care

Mary Ellen Vajravelu, MD, MSHP
Jul. 26, 2020

Mary Ellen Vajravelu, Joyce M. Lee, Sandra Amaral, Andrea Kelly

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Risk-based screening for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in youth with overweight/obesity is recommended, but rates remain low in practice. Identification of factors impacting provider ordering and patient completion of testing may guide strategies to improve screening.

Objective: To evaluate predictors of hemoglobin A1c (A1c)-based T2D screening in pediatric primary care.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 10 to 18 year-old patients with overweight/

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Identifying Risk Factors For Suicidal Ideation Across A Large Community Healthcare System

Jul. 18, 2020

Emily Schriver, Shari Lieblich, Reem AlRabiah, Danielle L. Mowery, Lily A. Brown

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Suicide is the tenth leading cause of death in the United States. Several studies have leveraged electronic health record (EHR) data to predict suicide risk in veteran and military samples; however, few studies have investigated suicide risk factors in a large-scale community health population.

Methods: Clinical data was queried for 9,811 patients from the Penn Medicine Health System who had completed a Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) documented in the EHR between January

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Moving Prevention Of Functional Impairment Upstream: Is Middle Age An Ideal Time For Intervention?

Jul. 17, 2020

Rebecca T. Brown, Kenneth E. Covinsky 

Abstract [from journal]

To live independently, individuals must be able to perform basic activities of daily living (ADLs), including bathing, dressing, and transferring out of a bed or chair. When older adults develop difficulty or the need for help performing ADLs, they experience decreased quality of life and an increased risk of acute care utilization, nursing home admission, and death. For these reasons, slowing or preventing the progression to functional problems is a key focus of the care of older adults. While preventive efforts currently focus

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Predicting Intentions To Meet Fruit & Vegetable Recommendations Among Black Emerging Adult Women

Jul. 16, 2020

Terri-Ann Kelly, Tanja V. E. Kral, Anne M. Teitelman, Janet A. Deatrick, Lisa M. Lewis

Abstract [from journal]

Objective: To examine Black emerging adult women's (ages 18-29) intention to meet the recommended daily intake of fruits and vegetables using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). 

Participants: Black emerging adult women (BEAW; N = 100). 

Methods: A cross-sectional survey design. 

Results: Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that in Model 1, attitudes (p<.0001) and subjective norms (p<.05) were significant predictors of intentions to

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Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Kenyan Adolescent Girls and Young Women With Limited Sexual Experience

Tiffany Yuh
Jul. 14, 2020

Tiffany Yuh, Murugi Micheni, Stacy Selke, Lynda Oluoch, Catherine Kiptinness, Amalia Magaret, Bhavna Chohan, Kenneth Ngure, Anna Wald, Nelly R. Mugo,  Alison C. Roxby

Abstract [from journal] 

Objectives: Globally, the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are among the 15-24 age group. Studying adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) pre-sexual debut could identify risk factors for STI acquisition.

Methods: We recruited a prospective cohort of low-risk AGYW aged 16-20 in Kenya. Participants were HIV and HSV-2 seronegative and reported no history of sexual intercourse or reported sex with one partner. Participants underwent genital exams, nucleic acid testing of vaginal swabs for ...

Pediatric Provider Perspectives And Practices Regarding Health Policy Discussions With Families: A Mixed Methods Study

Jul. 13, 2020

Aditi Vasan, Polina Krass, Leah Seifu, Talia A. Hitt, Nadir Ijaz, Leonela Villegas, Kathryn Pallegedara, Sindhu Pandurangi, Morgan Congdon, Beth Rezen, Chén C. Kenyon 

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Advocacy regarding child health policy is a core tenet of pediatrics. Previous research has demonstrated that most pediatric providers believe collective advocacy and political involvement are essential aspects of their profession, but less is known about how pediatric providers engage with families about policy issues that impact child health. The objectives of this study were to examine providers' perceptions and practices with regards to discussing health policy issues with families and to identify

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