Global Health

The analysis of population health in a global context in order to understand and reduce disparities and protect against global threats such as infectious diseases

Do Customers Flee From HIV? A Survey of HIV Stigma and Its Potential Economic Consequences on Small Businesses in Tshwane (Pretoria), South Africa

Jun. 19, 2017

Li-Wei Chao, Helena Szrek, Rui Leite, Shandir Ramlagan, Karl Peltzer

In AIDS and Behavior, Li-Wei Chao and colleagues investigate if businesses in Pretoria, South Africa with workers known to be HIV positive lose a large percentage of their customers. The researchers interviewed over two thousand individuals and found that, despite zero risk of infection, consumers feared acquiring HIV from products sold by a business with HIV positive workers. This impact of customer decline was found to vary based on the type of business, with an especially strong perceived decline among food businesses. These results suggest that reducing public health scare...

What Pertussis Mortality Rates Make Maternal Acellular Pertussis Immunization Cost-Effective in Low- and Middle-Income Countries? A Decision Analysis

Dec. 1, 2016

Louise B. Russell, Sri Ram Pentakota, Cristiana Maria Toscano, Ben Cosgriff, Anushua Sinha

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Despite longstanding infant vaccination programs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), pertussis continues to cause deaths in the youngest infants. A maternal monovalent acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine, in development, could prevent many of these deaths. We estimated infant pertussis mortality rates at which maternal vaccination would be a cost-effective use of public health resources in LMICs.

Methods: We developed a decision model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness...

Attitudes and Practices of Euthanasia and Physician Assisted Suicide in the US, Canada and Europe

Aug. 19, 2016

Ezekiel J. Emanuel; Bregje D. Onwuteaka-Philipsen; John W. Urwin; Joachim Cohen

In JAMA, Ezekiel Emanuel and colleagues review the legal status as well as the available data and practices of euthanasia and physician assisted suicide. This study gathers data from polling, published surveys of the public and physicians, official state and country databases, interview studies with physicians and death certificate studies from 1947 to 2016 to paint a thorough picture. The findings show that euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide can be practiced in the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Colombia, and Canada. Physician assisted suicide, excluding euthanasia, is...

Comparison of Site of Death, Health Care Utilization, and Hospital Expenditures for Patients Dying With Cancer in 7 Developed Countries

Feb. 17, 2016

Justin Bekelman, Scott Halpern, Carl Rudolf Blankart, Julie Bynum, Joachim Cohen, Robert Fowler, Stein Kaasa, Lukas Kwietniewski, Hans Olav Melberg, Bregie Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Mariska Oosterveld-Vulg, Andrew Pring, Joans Schreyogg, Connie Ulrich...

In The Journal of the American Medical Association, Justin Bekelman and colleagues, including Scott Halpern, Connie Ulrich and Ezekiel Emanuel compare site of death, health care utilization and hospital expenditures in 7 countries: Belgium, Canada, England, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway and the United States. Using administrative and registry data, the researchers measured deaths in acute care hospital, along with inpatient and outpatient measures, and hospital expenditures paid by insurers. They find that a smaller proportion of decedents, older than 65, died in acute...

“Science has delivered solutions. The question for the world is: When will we put it into practice?”

Aug. 9, 2015

In the mid-eighties, I coordinated a medical genetics clinic at Johns Hopkins Hospital. We shared our outpatient unit, the Moore Clinic, with the AIDS Care Program, which began in 1984. Every week, I would see the devastating and shockingly rapid decline of robust young men—men my age—in the waiting room outside my office. I came to recognize the pattern:  two men would walk in, one weaker, one stronger.