Global Health

The analysis of population health in a global context in order to understand and reduce disparities and protect against global threats such as infectious diseases

Relative wealth, subjective social status, and their associations with depression: Cross-sectional, population-based study in rural Uganda

Aug. 1, 2019

Meghan L. Smith, Bernard Kakuhikire, Charles Baguma, Justin D. Rasmussen, Jessica M. Perkins, Christine Cooper-Vince, Atheendar S. Venkataramani, Scholastic Ashaba, David R. Bangsberg, Alexander C. Tsai

Abstract [from journal]

Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide, and has been found to be a consistent correlate of socioeconomic status (SES). The relative deprivation hypothesis proposes that one mechanism linking SES to health involves social comparisons, suggesting that relative SES rather than absolute SES is of primary importance in determining health status. Using data from a whole-population sample of 1,620 participants residing in rural southwestern Uganda, we estimated the independent associations between objective and subjective relative wealth and


HIV Testing and Treatment with the Use of a Community Health Approach in Rural Africa

Jul. 18, 2019

Diane V. Havlir, Laura B. Balzer, Edwin D. Charlebois, Harsha Thirumurthy, et al. 

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) with annual population testing and a multidisease, patient-centered strategy could reduce new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and improve community health.

Methods: We randomly assigned 32 rural communities in Uganda and Kenya to baseline HIV and multidisease testing and national guideline-restricted ART (control group) or to baseline testing plus annual testing, eligibility for universal ART, and patient-centered care (intervention group). The


Generic Drugs In The United States: Policies To Address Pricing And Competition

Feb. 1, 2019

Ravi Gupta, Nilay D. Shah, Joseph S. Ross

Abstract [from journal]

The cost of prescription drugs in the United States continues to be a source of concern for patients, caregivers, and policymakers. Drug prices typically decline rapidly once generic drugs receive US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and enter the market, but the past decade has witnessed rising costs and shortages of generic drugs. We describe the strategies used by brand-name manufacturers to undermine generic competition and the reasons underlying the price increases of off-patent drugs, some of which continue to lack


The Impact of AIDS Treatment on Savings and Human Capital Investment in Malawi

Feb. 21, 2018

Victoria Baranov and Hans-Peter Kohler

In American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, Hans-Peter Kohler and Victoria Baranov study the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART), a treatment for AIDS, on savings and human capital investment in Malawi. In particular, they use spatial and temporal differences in ART availability to evaluate the impact of ART provision on cash savings, education expenditures, and children’s schooling.

The authors find that ART availability increases savings, expenditures on education, and children’s schooling significantly, even amongst those who are HIV-negative and thus, do not...

Cost-effectiveness of maternal GBS immunization in low-income sub-Saharan Africa

Dec. 14, 2017

Louise B.Russell, Sun-Young Kim, Ben Cosgriff, Sri Ram Pentakota, Stephanie J.Schrag, Ajoke Sobanjo-ter Meulen, Jennifer R.Verani, Anushua Sinha

Abstract [from journal] 

Background: A maternal group B streptococcal (GBS) vaccine could prevent neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Its cost-effectiveness in low-income sub-Saharan Africa, a high burden region, is unknown.

Methods: We used a decision tree model, with Markov nodes to project infants’ lifetimes, to compare maternal immunization delivered through routine antenatal care with no immunization. 37 countries were clustered on the basis of economic and health resources and past


Nursing skill mix in European hospitals: cross-sectional study of the association with mortality, patient ratings, and quality of care

Jul. 10, 2017

Linda H. Aiken, Douglas Sloane, Peter Griffiths, Anne Marie Rafferty, Luk Bruyneel, Matthew McHugh, Claudia B. Maier, Teresa Moreno-Casbas, Jane E. Ball, Dietmar Ausserhofer, Walter Sermeus

In BMJ Quality & Safety, Linda Aiken and colleagues, including Matthew McHugh examine the association of hospital nursing skill mix with patient mortality, patient ratings of care, and indicators of quality care among European hospitals. As policymakers around the world seek to reduce health spending, a popular target in Europe has been to transition from more professional nurses to fewer high-cost nurses supported by more lower-wage assistants. The authors analyzed how nursing skill mix affects indicators of quality patient care. The authors utilized cross-sectional patient...

An Assessment of Global Oral Health Education in U.S Dental Schools

Jul. 5, 2017

Janet Sung and Joan I. Gluch

In Journal of Dental Education, Janet Sung and Joan Gluch assess how global health education is currently incorporated into pre-doctoral dental training in the U.S.  In 2015-2016, the authors surveyed 64 accredited U.S dental schools regarding their global health education and competencies, and received responses from 52 of those schools. Most dental school curricula covered social determinants of oral diseases and conditions, how to identify barriers to use of oral health services, and how to work with patients who have limited dental health literacy. But other key areas of...

Health consequences of the US Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) immigration programme: a quasi-experimental study

Jun. 29, 2017

Atheendar S. Venkataramani, Sachin J. Shah, Rourke O’Brien, Ichiro Kawachi, Alexander C. Tsai

In The Lancet Public Health, Atheendar Venkataramani and colleagues investigate the physical and mental health effects of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program. DACA, a 2012 U.S immigration policy, provided renewable work permits and freedom from deportation for a large number of undocumented immigrants. The researchers conducted a retrospective, quasi-experimental study using data from non-citizen Hispanic adults. They examined changes in health outcomes among individuals meeting DACA eligibility criteria before and after program implementation, and compared...

Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sociodemographic Factors Prospectively Associated with Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration Among South African Heterosexual Men

Jun. 28, 2017

Anne M. Teitelman, Scarlett L. Bellamy, John B. Jemmott III, Larry Icard, Ann O'Leary, Samira Ali, Xolani Ngwane, Monde Makiwane

In Annals of Behavioral Medicine, Anne Teitelman and colleagues examine potential factors associated with intimate partner violence towards women among heterosexual men in South Africa. The researchers used longitudinal logistic equations to associate childhood sexual abuse and sociodemographic variables at baseline with intimate partner violence at subsequent time points. They found that among participants with a steady female partner, nearly 22% reported intimate partner violence within the last year. Factors associated with violence included: childhood sexual abuse, binge...

Do Customers Flee From HIV? A Survey of HIV Stigma and Its Potential Economic Consequences on Small Businesses in Tshwane (Pretoria), South Africa

Jun. 19, 2017

Li-Wei Chao, Helena Szrek, Rui Leite, Shandir Ramlagan, Karl Peltzer

In AIDS and Behavior, Li-Wei Chao and colleagues investigate if businesses in Pretoria, South Africa with workers known to be HIV positive lose a large percentage of their customers. The researchers interviewed over two thousand individuals and found that, despite zero risk of infection, consumers feared acquiring HIV from products sold by a business with HIV positive workers. This impact of customer decline was found to vary based on the type of business, with an especially strong perceived decline among food businesses. These results suggest that reducing public health scare...