Global Health

The analysis of population health in a global context in order to understand and reduce disparities and protect against global threats such as infectious diseases

Applying the Haddon Matrix Conceptual Model To Guide Motor Vehicle Crash Injury Research and Prevention in Botswana

Douglas Wiebe, PhD, University of Pennsylvania
May. 26, 2020

Claire Bocage, Yohana Mashalla, Paul Motshome, Othusitse Fane, Lydia Masilo-Nkhoma, Olorato Mathiba, Emang Mautle, Botsile Kuiperij, Tlhabano Mmusi, John H. Holmes, Vicky Tam, Frances K. Barg, Douglas J. Wiebe

Abstract [from journal]

Introduction: Little literature addresses the burden of injury in Botswana, including trauma from motor-vehicle crashes (MVCs). In response, the University of Botswana and the Botswana Ministry of Health and Wellness are collaborating with the University of Pennsylvania to enhance injury and trauma research capacity in Botswana. Here we describe this training program and a research exercise to identify opportunities to prevent, through future research and countermeasures, MVCs specifically in Botswana.


A Global Survey On The Impact Of COVID-19 On Urological Services

May. 26, 2020

Jeremy Yuen-Chun Teoh, William Lay Keat Ong, Daniel Gonzalez-Padilla, Daniele Castellani, Justin M Dubin, Francesco Esperto, Riccardo Campi, Kalyan Gudaru, Ruchika Talwar, Zhamshid Okhunov, Chi-Fai Ng, Nitesh Jain, Vineet Gauhar, Martin Chi-Sang Wong, Marcelo Langer Wroclawski, ...

Abstract [from journal]

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) declared coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) as a pandemic on March 11, 2020. The impact of COVID-19 on urological services in different geographical areas is unknown.

Objective: To investigate the global impact of COVID-19 on urological providers and the provision of urological patient care.

Design, setting, and participants: A cross-sectional, web-based survey was conducted from March 30, 2020 to April 7, 2020. A 55-item


ED Visits And Readmissions After Follow-up For Mental Health Hospitalization

Stephanie Doupnik, MD
May. 13, 2020

Naomi S. Bardach, Stephanie K. Doupnik, Jonathan Rodean, Bonnie T. Zima, James C. Gay, Carol Nash, Yasas Tanguturi, Tumaini R. Coker

Abstract [from journal]

Objectives: A national quality measure in the Child Core Set is used to assess whether pediatric patients hospitalized for a mental illness receive timely follow-up care. In this study, we examine the relationship between adherence to the quality measure and repeat use of the emergency department (ED) or repeat hospitalization for a primary mental health condition.

Methods: We used the Truven MarketScan Medicaid Database 2015-2016, identifying hospitalizations with a primary diagnosis of depression, bipolar disorder...

The Viral Infection And Respiratory Illness Universal Study (VIRUS): An International Registry Of Coronavirus 2019-Related Critical Illness

Apr. 29, 2020

Allan J Walkey, Vishakha K Kumar, Michael O Harhay, Scott Bolesta, Vikas Bansal, Ognjen Gajic, Rahul Kashyap

Abstract [from journal]

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has disproportionally strained intensive care services worldwide. Large areas of uncertainly regarding epidemiology, physiology, practice patterns, and resource demands for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 require rapid collection and dissemination of data. We describe the conception and implementation of an intensive care database rapidly developed and designed to meet data analytic needs in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic-the multicenter, international Society of Critical Care...

Survey-based Work System Assessment To Facilitate Large-scale Dissemination Of Healthcare Quality Improvement Programs

Apr. 9, 2020

Anping Xie, Danielle W Koontz, Annie Voskertchian, James C Fackler, Aaron M Milstone, Charlotte Z Woods-Hill

Abstract [from journal]

Introduction: The dissemination of quality improvement (QI) interventions to a broader range of healthcare settings requires a proactive assessment of local work systems and processes. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using a survey-based work system assessment (WSA) tool to facilitate the dissemination of a program for optimizing blood culture (BC) use.

Methods: Informed by findings from an onsite, interview-based WSA at 2 hospitals, a 50-item WSA survey was devised and...

Parental Self-Efficacy And Health-Related Outcomes Among Children With Hirschsprung Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study

Mar. 21, 2020

Ying Dai, Haiqing Zheng, Huiying Liang, Ruiqiong Li, Menglong Lan, Jixiao Zeng

Abstract [from journal]

Purpose: Little attention has been put to parental self-efficacy (PSE) on the home care management and its impact on the health-related outcome in children with Hirschsprung disease (HD) after surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between PSE and post-operative outcome and quality of life (QoL) in children with HD.

Design and methods: This study adopted a cross-sectional study design. Children diagnosed with HD who had surgery during 2015 and


Assessing Nurses' Adherence to the See-and-Treat Guidelines of Botswana's National Cervical Cancer Prevention Programme

Dec. 20, 2019

Lauren G. Johnson, Doreen Ramogola-Masire, Anne M. Teitelman, John B. Jemmott, Alison M. Buttenheim

Abstract [from journal]

The see-and-treat approach for cervical cancer screening (VIA followed by immediate cryotherapy) was first pilot tested in Botswana in 2009. Botswana's Ministry of Health and the Botswana-UPenn Partnership collaborated to expand see-and-treat to 5 additional sites throughout the country in 2014. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether nurses' adherence to guideline-based screening was maintained during scale-up. Therefore, we compared nurses' adherence between the pilot and scaled-up sites and determined main drivers of nonadherence...

Access To Clean Water and Urinary Tract Infections in Haitian Women

Aug. 29, 2019

Lucy Andersen, Elizabeth Burgess Dowdell

Abstract [from journal]

Objectives: Access to clean water is a global concern. For women living in developing countries, the lack of clean water increases their risk of bacterial infections, such as a urinary tract infection (UTI). The purpose of this study was to examine if the location of water source has a relationship with the rate of UTIs in women who lived in the Léogâne area of Haiti.



Effect of Prices, Distribution Strategies, and Marketing on Demand for HIV Self-testing in Zimbabwe: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Aug. 28, 2019

Wei Chang, Primrose Matambanadzo, Albert Takaruza, Karin Hatzold, Frances M. Cowan, Euphemia Sibanda, Harsha Thirumurthy

Abstract [from journal]

Importance: HIV self-testing is a promising approach for increasing awareness of HIV status in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Zimbabwe, where HIV prevalence is 13%. Evidence is lacking, however, on the optimal pricing policies and delivery strategies for maximizing the effect of HIV self-testing.

Objective: To assess demand for HIV self-testing among adults and priority-population subgroups under alternative pricing and distribution strategies.

Design, Setting, and Participants:...

Relative wealth, subjective social status, and their associations with depression: Cross-sectional, population-based study in rural Uganda

Aug. 1, 2019

Meghan L. Smith, Bernard Kakuhikire, Charles Baguma, Justin D. Rasmussen, Jessica M. Perkins, Christine Cooper-Vince, Atheendar S. Venkataramani, Scholastic Ashaba, David R. Bangsberg, Alexander C. Tsai

Abstract [from journal]

Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide, and has been found to be a consistent correlate of socioeconomic status (SES). The relative deprivation hypothesis proposes that one mechanism linking SES to health involves social comparisons, suggesting that relative SES rather than absolute SES is of primary importance in determining health status. Using data from a whole-population sample of 1,620 participants residing in rural southwestern Uganda, we estimated the independent associations between objective and subjective relative wealth and


HIV Testing and Treatment with the Use of a Community Health Approach in Rural Africa

Jul. 18, 2019

Diane V. Havlir, Laura B. Balzer, Edwin D. Charlebois, Harsha Thirumurthy, et al. 

Abstract [from journal]

Background: Universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) with annual population testing and a multidisease, patient-centered strategy could reduce new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and improve community health.

Methods: We randomly assigned 32 rural communities in Uganda and Kenya to baseline HIV and multidisease testing and national guideline-restricted ART (control group) or to baseline testing plus annual testing, eligibility for universal ART, and patient-centered care (intervention group). The